Means, standard deviations and correlations among the variables are displayed in . Based on these results, it appears that mean quantity, frequency and DPI score rose from the pre-retirement assessment (Time 1) to the assessment in retirement (Time 2). The bivariate results indicated an inverse relationship between voluntary retirement perceptions (i.e., a sense of being pulled into retirement) and both alcohol consumption and problem drinking, and a positive relationship between involuntary retirement perceptions (i.e., a sense of being pushed into retirement) and both alcohol consumption and problem drinking.
Means, Standard Deviations and Intercorrelation (Pearson) of the Measured Variables
Interestingly, while the bivariate results indicated a strong correlation between Time 1 frequency and quantity and these same parameters in Time 2 (r = .74 and .57, respectively; p<.01 in both cases), they also indicated only a weak relationship between Time 1 DPI and Time 2 DPI (r = .16, p<.01). Moreover, while a control model including Time 1 frequency of consumption explained over 60 percent of the variance in Time 2 frequency, control models including Time 1 quantity and DPI explained a more limited proportion of the variance in these same outcomes at Time 2 (i.e., 35% and 12%, respectively). The limited effect of pre-retirement quantity of consumption on quantity of consumption immediately after retiring, is consistent with findings in the alcohol literature (Ekerdt et al., 1989
), which suggest that, once released from work-based obligations, low quantity consumers (who comprise the vast majority of employees in most workplaces) feel able to increase their average quantity of alcohol intake on each drinking occasion (without necessarily increasing their frequency of consumption). Such a shift would naturally attenuate any link between pre-retirement quantity and quantity of consumption in retirement. Regarding DPI, while individuals with a moderate or serious drinking problem (DPI scores of 2 or more – Bamberger et al., 2006
) at Time 1 are likely to carry such a problem forward over time (Bacharach et al., 2007
), given that most study participants had scores of 0 or 1, and that individual symptoms that are not part of a more deep-seated problem may be more temporary in nature (Walton, 2000
), it is not surprising that Time 1 DPI explained only a small portion of the variance in Time 2 DPI.
The results of our multivariate analyses testing Hypotheses 1a and 1b (which specified direct positive effects for involuntary retirement [i.e., “push”] perceptions and direct inverse effects for voluntary retirement [i.e., “pull”] perceptions on both alcohol consumption and problem drinking) are presented in (see Model 1 in columns 1 and 2, respectively). Consistent with these hypotheses, the results indicate a positive association between push perceptions and the change in both consumption frequency (B= .334, p<0.01) and quantity (B= .136, P<0.05). These results also indicate a significant inverse association between pull perceptions and both the change in consumption frequency (B= −.159, p<0.01), and the change in problem drinking as measured in terms of DPI (B= −.139, P<0.05). The significant increase in the amount of variance explained above and beyond the control model including the control and Time 1 consumption/problem drinking variables only (ΔR2 = 0.12 [p<0.01], 0.031 [p<0.05], 0.027 [p<0.05] for the frequency, quantity, and DPI models, respectively) indicates that the inclusion of the push and pull perceptions significantly contributes to the explanatory power of these three models. Still, no significant effect was found for push perceptions with regard to problem drinking, nor for pull perceptions with regard to the change in consumption quantity.
Table 2 Linear Regressions Testing the Influence of the Degree to which Retirement Viewed as Involuntary (i.e., “Pushed”)/Voluntary (i.e., “Pulled”), and Job Satisfaction on Drinking Frequency, Drinking Quantity, and Drinking Problem (more ...)
In order to test Hypotheses 2a (positing that the positive association between a sense of being pushed into retirement and the change in alcohol consumption and problem drinking would be amplified as a function of pre-retirement job satisfaction) and 2b (positing that the inverse association between a sense of being pulled into retirement and the change in alcohol consumption and problematic drinking behavior would be attenuated as a function of pre-retirement job satisfaction), the interaction of centered push and centered job satisfaction, and of centered pull and centered job satisfaction, were entered into the model. These hypotheses were partially supported. Specifically, as shown in column 1 of Table 3 (Model 2), the generally positive association between a sense of being pushed to retire and the change in the frequency of consumption was found to be amplified as a function of pre-retirement levels of job satisfaction (B for the interaction= 1.112, p<0.05). Similarly, as shown in column 3 of Table 3 (Model 2), the generally inverse association of “pull” perceptions and the change in the severity of problem drinking (as assessed in terms of DPI) was shown to be attenuated and, indeed, reversed as a function of pre-retirement levels of job satisfaction (B for the interaction= .237, p<0.01).
With respect to both of these models, the inclusion of both job satisfaction and its interaction with push and pull factors resulted in a significant increase in the total effect size (ΔR2= 0.02 [p<0.05] for both the frequency of consumption, and for problem drinking) relative to the main effect models excluding these interactions. The nature of these two significant interaction effects is plotted in and . shows that under conditions of high pre-retirement levels of job satisfaction, a sense of being pushed into retirement is associated with a steeper push-drinking slope than under conditions of mean and lower pre-retirement levels of job satisfaction. In contrast, suggests that while under conditions of low pre-retirement levels of job satisfaction (i.e., −1 standard deviation below the mean), there is the expected inverse association between the perceived voluntariness of the retirement decision (i.e., pull) and problem drinking, under conditions of mean pre-retirement job satisfaction, the link between perceived voluntariness of retirement and problem drinking is largely invariant, and under conditions of high (i.e., +1 S.D.) pre-retirement job satisfaction, the link between perceived voluntariness of retirement and problem drinking is positive.
Interactive effects of degree to which retirement is perceived as involuntary (i.e., pushed) and pre-retirement job satisfaction on the post-retirement frequency of alcohol consumption.
Interactive effects of degree to which retirement is perceived as voluntary (i.e., pulled) and pre-retirement job satisfaction on the post-retirement severity of drinking problems (DPI).
The results of the analyses on the simple slopes of the degree to which retirement is perceived as involuntary (i.e., pushed factor) or voluntary (i.e., pulled factor), contingent on the level job satisfaction indicate that, in the case of frequency of consumption, the slope (effect) of push factors was significantly positive under conditions of both low (B= 4.692, P<.001) and high (B= 8.495, P<.001) pre-retirement job satisfaction, but significantly steeper in the case of the latter (Δ= 3.8, P<0.001). This means that when the level of pre-retirement job satisfaction is low, alcohol frequency increases as the perceived involuntariness of retirement increases. Yet, when the level of job satisfaction is high, this effect is significantly stronger. As for DPI, the slope of the pull factor was significantly negative under conditions of low pre-retirement job satisfaction (B= −.885, P<.001) but insignificant under conditions of high pre-retirement job satisfaction (B= .686, P>0.05). These two slopes were also significantly different (Δ=1.6, p<0.001). Thus, although the former slope was significant (negative) while the latter was insignificant (positive), the difference between the two slopes indicates that the negative relationship between the degree to which retirement is perceived as voluntary (i.e., pulled factor) and DPI becomes, as predicted, attenuated as the level of pre-retirement job satisfaction increases.