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Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. Nov 2007; 92(6): F503–F507.
PMCID: PMC2675407
Haematology of Down syndrome
David Webb, Irene Roberts, and Paresh Vyas
David Webb, Department of Haematology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, England
Irene Roberts, Department of Haematology, Hammersmith and St Mary's Hospitals, Imperial College, London, England
Paresh Vyas, Department of Haematology and MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital and Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, England
Correspondence to: Paresh Vyas
Department of Haematology and MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital and Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford OX3 9DU, England; paresh.vyas@imm.ox.ac.uk
Accepted March 19, 2007.
Abstract
Down syndrome is a common congenital disorder affecting ~1/1000 live births. Newborns and children with Down syndrome may present with many haematological problems. In addition, benign abnormalities of the blood count and blood film, which may manifest at any age, population‐based and cancer‐based registries and clinical trials suggest there is a ~12‐fold increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the age group of 5–30 years that rises to ~40‐fold in children younger than 5 years, and that there is a ~150‐fold increased risk of acute myeloid leukaemia in children younger than 5 years. There is also a virtually unique predisposition to a transient neonatal leukaemia, known as transient abnormal myelopoiesis. Deaths from leukaemia, in part, account for the excess mortality associated with Down syndrome. This article reviews the clinical presentation and the progress made in the management of these disorders over the past decade. It also briefly considers the recent exciting scientific advances that have potential to transform management of leukaemia in children with Down syndrome and also have implications for management of childhood leukaemia more generally.
Articles from Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition are provided here courtesy of
BMJ Group