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Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. Nov 2007; 92(6): F438–F443.
Published online Feb 15, 2007. doi:  10.1136/adc.2006.103135
PMCID: PMC2675386
Randomised trial of a parenting intervention during neonatal intensive care
Cris Glazebrook, Neil Marlow, Christine Israel, Tim Croudace, Samantha Johnson, Ian R White, and Andrew Whitelaw
Cris Glazebrook, School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
Neil Marlow, Samantha Johnson, School of Human Development, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
Christine Israel, Andrew Whitelaw, Department of Clinical Science at North Bristol, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
Tim Croudace, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Ian R White, MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Correspondence to: Dr Cris Glazebrook
Division of Psychiatry, School of Community Health Sciences, A Floor, South Block, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK;
Accepted February 6, 2007.
To evaluate the influence of parenting intervention on maternal responsiveness and infant neurobehavioural development following a very premature birth.
Cluster‐randomised controlled trial, with a crossover design and three‐month washout period.
Six neonatal intensive care units.
Infants born <32 weeks' gestation.
The Parent Baby Interaction Programme (PBIP) is a supportive, educational intervention delivered by research nurses in the neonatal intensive care unit, with optional home follow‐up for up to six weeks after discharge.
Main outcome measures
Parenting stress at 3 months adjusted age, as measured by the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Other outcomes included the Neurobehavioural Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI) and maternal interaction as assessed by the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS) and the responsivity subscale for Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME).
112 infants were recruited in the intervention phases and 121 in the control phases. Mean standardised NAPI scores at 35 weeks did not differ between the PBIP and control groups. Both groups had low but similar NCATS caregiver scores before discharge (36.6 in the PBIP group and 37.4 in control, adjusted mean difference −0.7, 95% CI −2.7 to 1.4). At three months, adjusted age mean PSI scores for the PBIP group were 71.9 compared with 67.1 for controls (adjusted mean difference 3.8, 95% CI −4.7 to 12.4). NCATS scores and HOME responsivity scores were similarly distributed between the groups.
This early, nurse‐delivered, parent‐focused interaction programme intervention had no measurable effects on short‐term infant neurobehavioural function, mother–child interaction or parenting stresses.
Keywords: cluster randomised trial, interaction, parental stress, preterm infant, very premature birth
Articles from Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition are provided here courtesy of
BMJ Group