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Epilepsy results from aberrant electrical activity that can affect either a focal area or the entire brain. In treating epilepsy with drugs, the aim is to decrease seizure frequency and severity while minimizing toxicity to the brain and other tissues. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are usually administered by oral and intravenous routes, but these drug treatments are not always effective. Drug access to the brain is severely limited by a number of biological factors, particularly the blood—brain barrier, which impedes the ability of AEDs to enter and remain in the brain. To improve the efficacy of AEDs, new drug delivery strategies are being developed; these methods fall into the three main categories: drug modification, blood—brain barrier modification, and direct drug delivery. Recently, all three methods have been improved through the use of drug-loaded nanoparticles.