In this report we describe the discovery of tumor-specific amplitude modulation frequencies in patients with a diagnosis of cancer using noninvasive biodfeedback methods. Our approach represents a significant departure from the development of novel forms of chemotherapy and targeted therapy, which commonly rely on in vitro
and animal experiments, followed by phase I studies to assess tolerability. Given the absence of theoretical health risks related to the administration of very low level of electromagnetic fields and the excellent safety profile observed in patients suffering from insomnia treated for up to several years [7
], our approach was entirely patient-based. This allowed us to examine a large number of patients with tumor types commonly encountered in Switzerland and Brazil. It also allowed us to examine the same patients on multiple occasions, which decreased the variability inherent to a single frequency detection session.
Examination of patients with cancer led to the identification of frequencies that were either specific for a given tumor type or common to two or more tumor types. We observed that most frequencies were tumor-specific. Indeed, when the analysis of frequencies is restricted to tumor types analyzed following a minimum of 60 frequency detection sessions (breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, ovarian cancer and prostate cancer), at least 75% of frequencies appear to be tumor-specific. Some frequencies such as 1873.477 Hz, 2221.323 Hz, 6350.333 Hz and 10456.383 Hz are common to the majority of patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer. The small number of frequency detection sessions conducted in patients with thymoma, leiomyosarcoma, and bladder cancer constitutes a limitation of our study and an accurate estimate of tumor-specific versus nonspecific frequencies cannot yet be provided for these tumor types. Only one patient with thyroid cancer metastatic to the lung was examined 14 times over the course of the past three years and this led to the discovery of 112 frequencies, 79.5% of which were thyroid cancer-specific. These combined findings strongly suggest that many tumor types have a proportion of tumor-specific frequencies of more than 55%. The high number of frequencies observed in patients with ovarian cancer may be due to the various histologies associated with this tumor type.
We observed excellent compliance with this novel treatment as patients were willing to self-administer experimental treatment several times a day. The only observed adverse effects in patients treated with tumor-specific frequencies were grade I fatigue after treatment (10.6%) and grade I mucositis (3.6%). Fatigue was short-lived and no patient reported persistent somnolence. Of note, mucositis only occurred concomitantly with the administration of chemotherapy. The frequency and severity of adverse effects is analogous to what was observed in patients treated with insomnia-specific frequencies [5
] and confirm the feasibility of this therapeutic approach and its excellent tolerability.
We did not observe any untoward reaction in patient receiving either chemotherapy or targeted therapy in combination with amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields. While these latter findings are limited to 7 patients, they are consistent with the lack of theoretical interaction between very low level of electromagnetic fields and anticancer therapy. Furthermore, one patient received palliative radiation therapy concomitantly with experimental therapy without any adverse effects. These findings provide preliminary data suggesting that amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields may be added to existing anticancer therapeutic regimens.
The objective responses observed suggest that electromagnetic fields amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies may have a therapeutic effect. Of the seven patients with metastatic breast cancer, one had a complete response lasting 11 months, another one a partial response lasting 13.5 months. These data provide a strong rationale to further study this novel therapy in breast cancer. The increased knowledge of tumor-specific frequencies and the preliminary evidence that additional tumor-specific frequencies may yield a therapeutic benefit (Figure ) provides a strong rationale for the novel concept that administration of a large number of tumor-specific frequencies obtained through the follow-up of numerous patients may result in long-term disease control. This hypothesis is partially supported by two long-term survivors reported in this study, a patient with thyroid cancer metastatic to the lung with stable disease for +34.1 months and a heavily pretreated patient with ovarian carcinoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis with stable disease for +50.5 months. Additional support for this hypothesis stems from the observation that four patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in a follow-up phase II study by Costa et al had a partial response, two of them lasting more than 35 months[15
]. These exciting results provide hope that this novel therapeutic approach may yield long-term disease control of advanced cancer.
Kirson et al have recently reported the use of continuous wave (CW) electric fields between 100 KHz to 1 MHz [10
]. These fields were CW, applied at relative high field strengths but lower frequencies than the fields used in our study. These frequencies were found to be effective when applied by insulating external electrodes to animal cancer models and patients with recurrent glioblastoma. In contrast to our approach, the electric fields applied to cancer cells and patients did not include any amplitude modulation. Hence, it is likely that these two different therapeutic modalities have different mechanisms of action.
Computer simulation studies have shown that the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the head resulting from the use of intrabuccally-administered amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields is in the range of 0.1–100 mW/kg[1
]. Hence, the SAR outside the head is substantially below 0.1 mW/kg. We had previously hypothesized that the mechanism of action of electromagnetic fields amplitude-modulated at insomnia-specific frequencies was due to modification in ions and neurotransmitters[6
], as demonstrated in animal models[16
], as such biological effects had been reported at comparable SARs. However, this hypothesis does not provide a satisfactory explanation for the clinical results observed in patients with advanced cancer. First, the levels of electromagnetic fields delivered to organs such as the liver, adrenal gland, prostate and hip bones, are substantially lower than the levels delivered to the head. Second, there is currently no acceptable rationale for a systemic anti-tumor effect that would involve subtle changes in neurotransmitters and ions within the central nervous system. Consequently, we hypothesize that the systemic changes (pulse amplitude, blood pressure, skin resistivity) observed while patients are exposed to tumor-specific frequencies are the reflection of a systemic effect generated by these frequencies. These observations suggest that electromagnetic fields, which are amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies, do not act solely on tumors but may have wide-ranging effects on tumor host interactions, e.g. immune modulation. The exciting results from this study provide a strong rationale to study the mechanism of action of tumor-specific frequencies in vitro
and in animal models, which may lead to the discovery of novel pathways controlling cancer growth.