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Rabies and rabies-related virus strains were studied by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against either nucleocapsid proteins or cell surface antigens of Mokola virus (Mok-3). Each strain was used in parallel to infect cultured cells and mice. Then, the patterns of reactivity of the different monoclonal antibodies were determined by the immunofluorescent-antibody staining procedure. On cells, the monoclonal antibodies differentiated fixed rabies virus strains (serotype 1) from rabies-related virus strains. The seven fixed strains (CVS, PV4, PM, Flury LEP and HEP, ERA, and SAD) reacted identically. The previous serotype groupings (serotype 2, Lagos-bat virus; serotype 3, Mokola virus; serotype 4, Duvenhage virus) established with anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies were confirmed, except for that of Lagos-bat Kindia, which appeared to be related to the African subtype of the Duvenhage serotype (Duv-2). Within the Mokola (Mok-1, -2, -3, and -5 and Umhlanga) and the Lagos-bat (Lag-1 and -2, Zimbabwe, Pinetown, and Dakar) serotypes, each strain appeared to be distinct. The African subtype of the Duvenhage serotype reacted differently from the European subtype. Within the Duvenhage serotype, subtypes Duv-4, -5, and -6 and Denmark reacted identically, while subtypes Duv-1, -2, and -3 and German Democratic Republic appeared to be distinct. The monoclonal antibodies specific for the cell surface antigens were also used in neutralization tests with all the strains. Two of them neutralized the infectivity of Mokola virus.