Intakes and biochemical concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols have been associated with chronic diseases.
To describe dietary patterns in Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants and to determine if biochemical measurements of antioxidants differ across these.
Cross sectional analysis of data for 373 African American men and women (35–80 y), participating in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the JHS.
Dietary intake was assessed with a region specific food frequency questionnaire. Patterns were defined by cluster analysis of food groups, as percent of energy intake.
Four dietary patterns were identified: 1) Fast food 2) Southern 3) Prudent and 4) Juice. Individuals in the Fast food pattern (n=153) had significantly lower serum concentrations of lutein plus zeaxanthin and beta cryptoxanthin; those in the Southern cluster (n=99) had significantly lower serum alpha carotene; and those in the Prudent (n=63) and Juice (n=58) clusters had significantly higher serum alpha carotene and beta cryptoxanthin (P < 0.05) relative to those in at least one other cluster (all P < 0.05). The Juice cluster also had higher serum alpha tocopherol concentrations relative to the Fast food cluster.
Diets high in fast food, snacks, soft drinks and meat were associated with relatively low concentrations of carotenoids and alpha tocopherol. This pattern contained the largest number of participants, and could contribute to the extensive health disparities seen in this region.
Keywords: food frequency questionnaire, Jackson Heart Study, dietary patterns, antioxidant biomarkers, African Americans