The survey interviewed a total of 3,875 Asian Americans, only 479 of whom were smokers and were included in this analysis. Asian American smokers included 212 moderate/heavy, 128 light, and 139 intermittent smokers. Among White respondents, there were 2,496 moderate/heavy, 450 light, and 1,055 intermittent smokers.
show that, compared with White smokers, most Asian American smokers, both men and women, were more likely to report light or intermittent smoking than moderate/heavy smoking. Moderate/heavy smokers represented well over half of the White men and women smokers, but among Asian national origin groups, only Japanese and Korean American men and Japanese and other Asian American women had over half of smokers similarly represented.
Figure 1. Top panel: Proportions of cigarette smoking intensity among Asian American men by national origin groups and White men, California Health Interview Survey, 2003. Test for heterogeneity across eight groups (p<.0001). The p values (more ...)
Within smoking intensity groups, most Asian American smokers reported lower mean cigarette consumption than Whites. The lower mean cigarette consumption was also demonstrated for the Asian American subgroups, of which over half were moderate/heavy smokers, for both men (Japanese, 14.5; Korean, 14.2; and White, 19.2) and women (Japanese, 11.6; other Asian, 11.8; and White, 16.7). Slightly higher mean cigarette consumption, compared with White counterparts, was reported for a few groups: moderate/heavy smoker Korean women (17.3 vs.16.7), light smoker Japanese and Korean men (5.5 and 5.6 vs. 5.5), light smoker Japanese women (6.8 vs. 5.5), and intermittent smoker Chinese and Filipino men (7.2 and 5.5 vs. 4.8).
demonstrates the prevalence of each Asian American smoking pattern within each demographic variable (by row), separated by gender. Poverty level was statistically significant for men, with half of the poorest category being intermittent smokers and about half of the wealthier categories being moderate/heavy smokers. Age and education were statistically significant for women, with the older smokers more likely to be daily smokers and the less educated more likely to be moderate/heavy smokers.
Demographics of moderate/heavy, light, and intermittent smoking among Asian American men and women, California Health Interview Survey, 2003
In the multivariate analysis comparing Asian American light and intermittent smokers to moderate/heavy smokers (), gender, education, national origin, and English language proficiency were statistically significant. Compared with men, women were more likely to be light or intermittent smokers than moderate/heavy smokers. Similarly, compared with smokers who have less than a high school education, smokers who have a college education were more likely to be light or intermittent smokers than moderate/heavy smokers. Compared with Chinese Americans, Korean Americans were less likely to be light or intermittent smokers than moderate/heavy smokers. Compared with smokers who spoke English only, Asian Americans who were bilingual with high English proficiency were more likely to be light or intermittent smokers than moderate/heavy smokers.
Factors associated with (a) light/intermittent versus moderate/heavy smoking and (b) intermittent versus daily smoking among Asian Americans, California Health Interview Survey, 2003
In the multivariate analysis comparing Asian American intermittent to daily smokers (see ), gender was the only variable that retained statistical significance from the previous model, and poverty level reached statistical significance. Women were more likely than men to be intermittent than daily smokers. Smokers reporting 200%–299% federal poverty level were less likely than the poorest (0%–99% federal poverty level) to be intermittent smokers than daily smokers.
We did not find any interactions between gender and birthplace. A trend for statistical significance was observed for interaction between gender and English proficiency both in comparing light or intermittent smokers with moderate/heavy smokers (p
.11) as well as in comparing intermittent smokers with daily smokers (p