An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a highly purified pneumolysin as the antigen was evaluated for serological diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. One hundred four healthy controls were tested, and the specificity of the test was set to 95%. In samples from patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, 82% (18 of 22) were positive, i.e., at least one serum sample had a titer above the upper normal limit or at least a twofold rise in antibody titers was noted. In nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, 45% (21 of 47) of samples were positive. All sera were negative for patients with pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia psittaci, and influenza A virus. However, in patients with a diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, 8 of 25 (32%) samples were positive for antibodies to pneumolysin. All sera, including those from patients with mycoplasma infection, were negative to a protein control antigen by ELISA. Serum immunoglobulin G response to pneumolysin as measured by ELISA might thus be an aid in the laboratory diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. This assay may also help to further elucidate the occurrence of dual infections with pneumococci.