Chondrocyte maturation and cartilage formation involves multiple steps that are regulated by numerous growth factors, their downstream signaling molecules and transcription factors. Conventional and tissue-specific gene deletions provide powerful tools to investigate roles of specific genes in chondrocyte maturation. However, embryonic lethality is often encountered because of the essential role of various genes in early embryonic development (Akiyama et al., 2004
; Karaplis et al., 1994
; Lanske et al., 1996
; Razzaque et al., 2005
; Sakamoto et al., 2005
; St-Jacques et al., 1999
). Furthermore, some gene deletions result in such severe skeletal malformation that interpretation of the phenotype is challenging even if the animal survive birth. An inducible conditional gene deletion approach is an exquisite method to determine the function of a gene that is either embryonic lethal or associated with marked abnormalities of morphology and tissue architectures. In this report, we present a chondrocyte-specific and tamoxifen-inducible Cre transgenic mouse model.
Type II collagen is a chondrocyte-specific protein and its expression is detected in growth plate and articular chondrocytes in long bones and other cartilage tissues in the body. Type II collagen promoter (col2a1) has been used in a variety of animal models to achieve tissue-specific gene expression in chondrocytes (Schipani et al., 1997
; Stricker et al., 2002
; Takeda et al., 2001
; Ueta et al., 2001
; Weir et al., 1996
). In the present studies, we generated transgenic mouse lines in which the Cre recombinase was fused to a mutated ligand-binding domain of human estrogen receptor (ER) driven by the col2a1 promoter (Col2a1-CreERT2
; Metzger et al., 2005
). The fusion protein has been reported to be translocated into the nuclei in response to estrogen antagonist tamoxifen or 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (4-OH tamoxifen), an active metabolite of tamoxifen in vivo (Indra et al., 1999
). This transgenic mouse model will serve as a valuable tool for gene deletion in a chondrocyte-specific and temporally-controlled manner.
cDNA was cloned into the plasmid PKN-185 (Tanaka et al., 2000
; Tsuda et al., 2003
). The Col2a1-CreERT2
transgene consists of the 1.0-kb mouse col2a1 promoter (nucleotide 1940-2971, GenBank accession number: M65161) linked to CreER with mutations of G400V, M543A, and L544A in the ligand-binding domain of human ER (Feil et al., 1997
; Indra et al., 1999
; Metzger et al., 2005
) followed by the col2a1 enhancer (nucleotide 4930-5571, GenBank accession number: M65161), as shown in (Krebsbach et al., 1996
; Metsaranta et al., 1991
FIG. 1 Col2a1-CreERT2 transgene construct. The Cre recombinase cDNA fused with cDNA encoding the ER ligand-binding domain containing three mutation sites was cloned into the PKN-185 vector. The expression of the fusion protein is under control of the 1.0-kb (more ...)
Two independent transgenic mouse lines have been established from 15 founder mice that exhibited similar patterns and levels of Cre expression and show tamoxifen-dependent induction of Cre-recombination activity. Detail analysis was performed in one line of the transgenic mice and presented in this manuscript.
To assess recombination in vivo, Col2a1-CreERT2
transgenic mice were crossed with Rosa26R reporter mice (R26R strain). The Rosa26R mice have the lacZ
gene inserted into the ubiquitously expressed Rosa locus that is preceded by a transcriptional stop cassette flanked by loxP sites (Mao et al., 1999
; Soriano, 1999
). In Col2a1-CreERT2
;R26R transgenic mice, β-Gal activity was observed only in chondrocytes in mice treated with tamoxifen to activate Cre-recombinase.
To analyze the activity of tamoxifen-induced Cre recombination during embryonic development, a single dose of tamoxifen was administered to pregnant female Col2a1-Cre+/-ERT2;R26R+/- mice with embryos at the E15.5 stage. E18.5 embryos were collected and analyzed by X-Gal staining. Areas of cartilage showed high levels of X-Gal staining including long bones, ribs, and the spine. In contrast, the calvariae and clavicles, which undergo intra-membranous bone formation, were negative for X-Gal staining. Weak or no staining was observed in cartilage tissues of control embryos that did not receive tamoxifen treatment (). X-Gal staining in knee joint sections of E18.5 embryos showed over 80% of the recombination efficiency in chondrocytes of articular cartilage and patella tissues but some epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage showed weaker X-Gal staining (), suggesting the insufficient fixation of the samples or relative poor access of tamoxifen in these areas. The results indicate that Cre recombination is activated in a tamoxifen-dependent manner in Col2a1-Cre+/-ERT2 embryos.
FIG. 2 Tamoxifen-induced lacZ expression in Col2a1-CreERT2 embryos. The male Col2a1-Cre+/-ERT2 mice were mated with female Rosa26R reporter mice. The pregnant female mice with E15.5 embryos were injected intraperitoneally with tamoxifen (4 mg/mouse) or corn (more ...)
To determine the specificity and efficiency of the Cre-mediated recombination in cartilage tissues of postnatal mice, 2- and 8-week-old Col2a1-Cre+/-ERT2;R26R+/- mice were treated with tamoxifen (1 mg/mouse/day, ×5days). Strong X-Gal staining was observed in regions of cartilage. Histological sections showed staining in growth plate chondrocytes including cells from the resting, proliferating, and hypertrophic zones (). Quantification of percentage of X-Gal-positive cells showed that 78% recombination efficiency was achieved in the growth plate in 2-week-old mice. Slight reduction in the numbers of X-Gal-positive cells was observed in 8-week-old mice (). Tamoxifen-induced Cre recombination was also observed in articular chondrocytes at a similar level of recombination efficiency (). Although some positive X-Gal staining was found in corn oil treated control mice, the staining was mainly observed in bone matrix instead of chondrocytes. It seems that there is a very limited leakiness for Cre expression in these transgenic mice. In ribs, strong X-Gal staining was also observed (). In vertebral tissue, the efficiency of tamoxifen-induced Cre-recombination was little bit lower (75%) (). In the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs, we did not detect the X-Gal staining (). Although cells in the nucleus pulposus produce type II collagen, the major protein component in this tissue is the proteoglycans (over 80%). Another possibility is the low tamoxifen penetration into the nucleus pulposus. No positive X-Gal staining was detected in noncartilage tissues, such as heart, kidney, and liver ().
FIG. 3 Histological analyses of the Col2a1-Cre+/-ERT2;R26R+/- mice. Two- and eight-week-old double transgenic mice were injected with tamoxifen (1 mg/mouse/day for 5 consecutive days). Mice were killed 5 days after injections were completed. Bone samples and (more ...)
To further confirm the specificity of tamoxifen-induced Cre recombination, the Cre expression was examined by RT-PCR in multiple tissues including liver, heart, kidney, lung, spleen, skin, spine, long bone and trachea in 2-week-old transgenic mice. The Cre expression was detected in spine, long bone and trachea tissues but not in liver, heart, kidney, lung, spleen, and skin tissues (). β-Gal activity was also examined in some of these tissues including rib, spine, long bone, liver, kidney, heart, and skin. The induction of the β-Gal activity by tamoxifen was detected in rib, spine, and long bone but not in the liver, kidney, heart, and skin of the transgenic mice ().
To determine the efficiency of tamoxifen-induced recombination in chondrocytes in vitro, primary sternal chondrocytes were isolated from 3-day-old neonatal Col2a1-Cre+/-
mice and treated with 4-OH tamoxifen. X-Gal staining and β-Gal activity measurements showed that 4-OH tamoxifen-induced efficient Cre-mediated recombination (). In contrast, estrogen did not induce β-Gal activity at the same concentration (). Tamoxifen is metabolized into its active form, 4-OH tamoxifen in vivo (Reed et al., 2005
) and 4-OH tamoxifen has been shown to bind specifically to the mutant ER (Feil et al., 1997
). These results suggest that expression of CreERT2
transgene can only be induced by exogenous 4-OH tamoxifen treatment but not by endogenous estrogen in chondrocytes derived from Col2a1-Cre+/-
transgenic mice. These findings show the specificity of tamoxifen-induced gene deletion. The nonuniformed X-Gal staining in the cell culture is probably due to the impurity of the isolated primary chondrocytes. Low percentage of fibroblasts or other cells are usually present in the primary cell culture.
FIG. 4 Tamoxifen-induced β-Gal activity in chondrocytes. (a) The sternal chondrocytes were isolated from 3-day-old neonatal Col2a1-Cre+/-ERT2;R26R+/- mice. Cells were seeded in 12 well-plates and treated with 4-OH tamoxifen for 24 and 48 h followed by (more ...)
Understanding the regulation of cartilage during growth and development is facilitated by conventional or conditional gene deletion strategies. However, the global and conditional gene deletions often result in lethality. Furthermore, some genes do not have effect in specific tissues until postnatal or adult stage. To circumvent these problems, we have generated the CreERT2 mice driven by the 1.0-kb col2a1 promoter, which are highly specific for chondrocytes. In this report, we have shown that tamoxifen-induced Cre recombination occurs specifically in chondrocytes with high efficiency. The utility of these mice is that it will allow us to carry out inducible gene knockout studies in cartilage tissues in a stage-specific manner. Since we have detected col2 mRNA expression in 6-month-old mice by in situ hybridization, it is possible that the col2a1 promoter will remain active in older mice and we can specifically knockout chondrocyte-specific genes in adult mice. Further studies are still required to examine the activity of inducible Cre recombinase for different ages of adult mice.
Although our present work validates Cre expression by breeding with the Rosa26R mice and analyzing the heterozygous offspring for both the Cre and R26R alleles, the ultimate test for this system is to knockout floxed genes in chondrocyte-specific fashion in both alleles. Currently, we are breeding these transgenic mice with β-catenin-loxP mice to determine the role of β-catenin in postnatal cartilage growth and development.
A chondrocyte-specific doxycline-inducible system has been recently reported (Grover and Roughley, 2006
), which also offers a valuable tool for the gene deletion at various stages. Similar approach was also reported recently by Nakamura et al. (2006)
during the revision of our manuscript. In these Col2-CreERT
transgenic mice, the CreERT
cDNA was driven by the col2a1 promoter. The recombination efficiency was evaluated during later stages of embryogenesis till the early postnatal stage. Cartilage-specific Cre expression was demonstrated. The doxycline-inducible and tamoxifen-inducible systems should provide complementary and alternative approaches for stage-specific gene deletion in chondrocytes.