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Flow cytometry can be used to detect antibody that kills Borrelia burgdorferi. Borreliacidal activity was detected within 3 h of incubating B. burgdorferi with immune serum and complement. Right-angle light scatter and propidium iodide fluorescence were the cytometric parameters which correlated best with in vitro killing of B. burgdorferi. Flow cytometry is a rapid method for determining the presence of borreliacidal activity and may lead to a better serodiagnostic test for the detection of Lyme disease.