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The effects of passive administration of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAB) to respiratory syncytial virus glycoproteins (GP90 and VP70) was evaluated in cotton rats challenged with respiratory syncytial virus. Animals injected with MAB to VP70 had lower mean viral titers in lung tissues than did controls (log10 2.5 versus 5.4 PFU/g; P less than 0.001), as did cotton rats given MAB to GP90 (log10 2.1 versus 5.0 PFU/g; P less than 0.001). Fifty percent of animals given either MAB had no detectable virus in lung tissues, whereas virus was detected in the lungs of all controls. Virus growth in nasal turbinates was decreased but not eliminated in recipients of either MAB.