Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jnmaLink to Publisher's site
J Natl Med Assoc. 2005 July; 97(7 Suppl): 5S–12S.
PMCID: PMC2640648

HIV/AIDS among minority races and ethnicities in the United States, 1999-2003.


BACKGROUND: During June 1981 to June 1982, 37% of more than 400 cases of AIDS reported to the CDC were in minority races and ethnicities. In 2003, 72% of the estimated 43,171 cases of AIDS diagnosed in the 50 states; District of Columbia; and U.S. dependencies, possessions and free nations were in minority races and ethnicities. METHODS: We analyzed HIV/AIDS data for 2000-2003 reported by the 32 states that have had confidential name-based reporting of HIV infection since 1999. For analysis of AIDS data, we used data for 1999-2003 reported by the 50 states and the District of Columbia. HIV/AIDS and AIDS data were statistically adjusted for reporting delays and redistribution of cases initially reported without risk factors. RESULTS: For all years, the numbers of HIV/AIDS and AIDS diagnoses were consistently higher among non-Hispanic blacks than among other races and ethnicities. In the 32 states with HIV reporting, the HIV/AIDS diagnosis rate in 2003 was 74 per 100,000 for blacks, 25 per 100,000 for Hispanics, 11 per 100,000 for American Indians/Alaska Natives, nine per 100,000 for whites, and seven per 100,000 for Asians/Pacific Islanders. The rates for persons living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2003 were highest for blacks (765 per 100,000) and Hispanics (220 per 100,000). In the 50 states and the District of Columbia, AIDS diagnosis rates in 2003 were 58 per 100,000 for blacks, 20 per 100,000 for Hispanics, eight per 100,000 for American Indians/Alaska Natives, and four per 100,000 for Asians/Pacific Islanders. CONCLUSION: HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects minority races and ethnicities in the United States. To reduce rates of HIV/AIDS in these populations, effective and culturally appropriate prevention interventions must be developed and implemented.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia--Los Angeles. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1981 Jun 5;30(21):250–252. [PubMed]
  • Klevens RM, Diaz T, Fleming PL, Mays MA, Frey R. Trends in AIDS among Hispanics in the United States, 1991-1996. Am J Public Health. 1999 Jul;89(7):1104–1106. [PubMed]
  • Smith DK, Gwinn M, Selik RM, Miller KS, Dean-Gaitor H, Ma'at PI, De Cock KM, Gayle HD. HIV/AIDS among African Americans: progress or progression? AIDS. 2000 Jun 16;14(9):1237–1248. [PubMed]
  • HIV/AIDS among racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men--United States, 1989-1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000 Jan 14;49(1):4–11. [PubMed]
  • Green TA. Using surveillance data to monitor trends in the AIDS epidemic. Stat Med. 1998 Jan 30;17(2):143–154. [PubMed]
  • Fullilove MT, Golden E, Fullilove RE, 3rd, Lennon R, Porterfield D, Schwarcz S, Bolan G. Crack cocaine use and high-risk behaviors among sexually active black adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 1993 Jun;14(4):295–300. [PubMed]
  • HIV incidence among young men who have sex with men--seven U.S. cities, 1994-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001 Jun 1;50(21):440–444. [PubMed]
  • HIV transmission among black college student and non-student men who have sex with men--North Carolina, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 Aug 20;53(32):731–734. [PubMed]
  • Laumann EO, Youm Y. Racial/ethnic group differences in the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: a network explanation. Sex Transm Dis. 1999 May;26(5):250–261. [PubMed]
  • Aral SO. Patterns of sexual mixing: mechanisms for or limits to the spread of STIs? Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Dec;76(6):415–416. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Trubo Richard. CDC initiative targets HIV research gaps in black and Hispanic communities. JAMA. 2004 Dec 1;292(21):2563–2564. [PubMed]
  • DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM. A randomized controlled trial of an HIV sexual risk-reduction intervention for young African-American women. JAMA. 1995 Oct 25;274(16):1271–1276. [PubMed]
  • Klein Susan J, Cruz Humberto, O'Connell Daniel A, Scully Mona A, Birkhead Guthrie S. A public health approach to "prevention with positives": the New York State HIV/AIDS Service Delivery System. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2005 Jan-Feb;11(1):7–17. [PubMed]
  • Advancing HIV prevention: new strategies for a changing epidemic--United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Apr 18;52(15):329–332. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of the National Medical Association are provided here courtesy of National Medical Association