Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are characterized by a long natural history. The evolution of the reconstructive techniques and the improvement of the peri-operative anaestesiologist management of the patient have contributed, over the last few years, to a progressive widening of demolitive surgery. The aims of enlarged surgical treatment in differentiated advanced thyroid carcinomas are to guarantee respiratory and alimentary functions as well as symptomatic benefits, to obtain local control of the disease and the recovery of adjuvant therapeutic options, such as metabolic and conventional radiation. In the present study, 27 patients who underwent enlarged surgery for differentiated thyroid carcinoma involving the superior digestive-aerial ways (SDAW) were treated between January 1992 and December 2002. The following results were achieved: Group 1 (7 patients): partial resection of the trachea and larynx: 57% of patients are Not Evidence Disease (NED) at a mean follow-up of 7 years; the other 43% are Alive With Disease (AWD). Group 2 (4 patients): total laryngectomy associated with emi-pharyngectomy or oesophagectomy of whom 50% are NED at a mean follow-up of 6 years. Group 3 (4 patients): mediastinum dissection in sternotomy of whom 3 patients NED at 7, 8 and 12 years of follow-up, respectively (75%). Group 4 (12 patients): latero-cervical, retro-clavear and subclavear dissection, of whom 75% of cases are NED at a mean follow-up of 5.1 years. Enlarged surgery is justified by the long natural history of the differentiated histotypes and the advantages it offers to adjuvant therapies. An essential principle, in the case of enlarged thyroid resections, is the modularity. With respect to the loco-regional spread of the disease, the surgeon has to study a treatment plan with a surgical procedure that involves the various elective districts of spreading, planning each surgical step with the entity of demolition and reconstruction being modulated according to the demand.
Keywords: Thyroid, Differentiated carcinomas, Surgical treatment, Radiometabolic therapy