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In order to evaluate a commercial immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) (Wellcozyme HIV1 + 2 Gacelisa; Murex Diagnostics Limited, Dartford, United Kingdom) for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vaginal secretion samples (VS) from HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women, serum samples (S) and VS were obtained from 129 African women living in the Central African Republic, a country of high HIV prevalence. Sera were tested for HIV by routine second-generation ELISA with confirmatory Western blot (immunoblot) (WB). By the Gacelisa IgG immuno-capture assay, 45 VS were positive and 84 were negative, whereas by WB, 44 VS were confirmed positive and 85 were confirmed negative. Considering WB as a reference, the IgG immunocapture assay in VS was 97.7% sensitive (43 of 44 positive samples) and 97.6% specific (83 of 85 negative samples). Of 42 HIV-seropositive women, 41 (97.6%) had S and VS that both were HIV positive (S+ VS+), and of 87 HIV-seronegative women, 83 (95.4%) had S and VS that both were HIV negative (S- VS-). Five women had discordant results for S and VS. One (S+ VS-) possibly had a false-negative VS result. Two (S- VS+) had similar indeterminate patterns for S and VS in WB. Two (S- VS+) had a typical HIV-positive pattern on WB of VS, whereas S results in WB were indeterminate in one case and negative in the other case; for both women, detection of prostatic acid-phosphatase was positive in VS, strongly suggesting recent sexual intercourse with an HIV-positive man. Because all HIV-infected men have detectable IgG antibodies to HIV in the seminal fluid, an HIV-seronegative rape victim with HIV-positive VS (S- VS+) should receive short-term antiviral therapy to prevent possible HIV transmission.