1. Gottesman II, Gould TD. The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:636–645. [PubMed] 2. Iacono WG. Identifying psychophysiological risk for psychopathology: examples from substance abuse and schizophrenia research. Psychophysiology. 1998;35:621–637. [PubMed] 3. Gould TD. Gottesman II. Psychiatric endophenotypes and the development of valid animal models. Genes Brain Behav. 2006;5:113–119. [PubMed] 4. Almasy L, Blangero J. Endophenotypes as quantitative risk factors for psychiatric disease: rationale and study design. Am J Med Genet. 2001;105:42–44. [PubMed] 5. Grove WM, Lebow BS, Clementz BA, Cerri A, Medus C, Iacono WG. Familial prevalence and coaggregation of schizotypy indicators: a multitrait family study. J Abnorm Psychol. 1991;100:115–121. [PubMed] 6. Iacono WG, Clementz BA. A strategy for elucidating genetic influences on complex psychopathological syndromes (with special reference to ocular motor functioning and schizophrenia) Prog Exp Pers Psychopathol Res. 1993;16:11–65. [PubMed] 7. Calkins ME, Iacono WG. Eye movement dysfunction in schizophrenia: a heritable characteristic for enhancing phenotype definition. Am J Med Genet. 2000;97:72–76. [PubMed] 8. Price GW, Michie PT, Johnston J, et al. A multivariate electrophysiological endophenotype, from a unitary cohort, shows greater research utility than any single feature in the Western Australian Family Study of Schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:1–10. [PubMed] 9. Hall MH, Schulze K, Bramon E, Murray RM, Sham P, Rijsdijk F. Genetic overlap between P300, P50, and duration mismatch negativity. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006;141B:336–343. [PubMed] 10. Iacono WG, Carlson SR, Malone SM. Identifying a multivariate endophenotype for substance use disorders using psychophysiological measures. Int J Psychophysiol. 2000;38:81–96. [PubMed]
11. Venables P. Input dysfunction in schizophrenia. In: Maher BA, editor. Progress in Experimental Personality Research. Orlando, Fla: Academic Press; 1964. pp. 1–47.
12. Braff DL, Freedman R. Endophenotypes in studies of the genetics of schizophrenia. In: Davis KL, Charney DS, Coyle JT, Nemeroff C, editors. Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. Philadelphia, Pa: Linppincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002. pp. 703–716.
13. Braff DL, Light GA. The use of neurophysiological endophenotypes to understand the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2005;7:125–135. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 14. Graham F. The more or less startling effects of weak prestimuli. Psychophysiology. 1975;12:238–248. [PubMed] 15. Braff D, Stone C, Callaway E, Geyer M, Glick I, Bali L. Prestimulus effects on human startle reflex in normals and schizophrenics. Psychophysiology. 1978;15:339–343. [PubMed] 16. Cadenhead KS, Swerdlow NR, Shafer KM, Diaz M, Braff DL. Modulation of the startle response and startle laterality in relatives of schizophrenia patients and schizotypal personality disordered subjects: evidence of inhibitory deficits. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:1660–1668. [PubMed]
17. Cadenhead KS, Swerdlow NR, Braff DL. Relative risk of prepulse inhibition deficits in schizophrenia patients and their siblings. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49:126S.
18. Kumari V, Das M, Zachariah E, Ettinger U, Sharma T. Reduced prepulse inhibition in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients. Psychophysiology. 2005;42:588–594. [PubMed] 19. Braff DL, Geyer MA, Swerdlow NR. Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies. Psychopharmacology. 2001;156:234–258. [PubMed] 20. Braff DL, Grillon C, Geyer M. Gating and habituation of the startle reflex in schizophrenic patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992;49:206–215. [PubMed] 21. Swerdlow NR, Geyer MA, Braff DL. Neural circuitry of prepulse inhibition of startle in the rat: current knowledge and future challenges. Psychopharmacology. 2001;156:194–215. [PubMed] 22. Swerdlow NR, Paulsen J, Braff DL, Butters N, Geyer MA, Swenson MR. Impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic and tactile startle in patients with Huntington's Disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995;58:192–200. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 23. Valls-Sole J, Munoz JE, Valldeoriola F. Abnormalities of prepulse inhibition do not depend on blink reflex excitability: a study in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;115:1527–1536. [PubMed] 24. Kodsi MH, Swerdlow NR. Prepulse inhibition in the rat is regulated by ventral and caudodorsal striato-pallidal circuitry. Behav Neurosci. 1995;109:912–928. [PubMed] 25. Carter RJ, Lione LA, Humby T, et al. Characterization of progressive motor deficits in mice transgenic for the human Huntington's disease mutation. J Neurosci. 1999;19:3248–3257. [PubMed] 26. Kumari V, Gray JA, Geyer MA, et al. Neural correlates of tactile prepulse inhibition: a functional MRI study in normal and schizophrenic subjects. Psychiatry Res. 2003;122:99–113. [PubMed] 27. Geyer MA, Krebs-Thomson K, Braff DL, Swerdlow NR. Pharmacological studies of prepulse inhibition models of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia: a decade in review. Psychopharmacology. 2001;156:117–154. [PubMed] 28. Karper LP, Freeman GK, Grillon C, Morgan CA III, Charney DS, Krystal JH. Preliminary evidence of an association between sensorimotor gating and distractibility in psychosis. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1996;8:60–66. [PubMed] 29. Perry W, Braff DL. Information-processing deficits and thought disorder in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:363–367. [PubMed] 30. Perry W, Geyer MA, Braff DL. Sensorimotor gating and thought disturbance measured in close temporal proximity in schizophrenic patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56:277–281. [PubMed] 31. Swerdlow NR, Light GA, Cadenhead KC, Sprock J, Hsieh MH, Braff DL. Startle gating deficits in a large cohort of patients with schizophrenia: relationship to medications, symptoms, neurocognition and level of function. Arch Gen Psychiatry. In press. [PubMed] 32. Abel K, Waikar M, Pedro B, Hemsley D, Geyer M. Repeated testing of prepulse inhibition and habituation of the startle reflex: a study in healthy human controls. J Psychopharmacol. 1998;12:330–337. [PubMed] 33. Flaten MA. Test-retest reliability of the somatosensory blink reflex and its inhibition. Int J Psychophysiology. 2002;45:261–265. [PubMed] 34. Cadenhead KS, Carasso BS, Swerdlow NR, Geyer MA, Braff DL. Prepulse inhibition and habituation of the startle response are stable neurobiological measures in a normal male population. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45:360–364. [PubMed]
35. Swerdlow NR, Talledo JA Baseline startle gating predicts post-placebo gating 1–2 weeks later [abstract] Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:40S–41S.
36. Braff DL, Swerdlow NR, Geyer MA. Symptom correlates of prepulse inhibition deficits in male schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:596–602. [PubMed] 37. Braff DL, Light GA, Ellwanger J, Sprock J, Swerdlow NR. Female schizophrenia patients have prepulse inhibition deficits. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:817–820. [PubMed] 38. Leumann L, Feldon J, Vollenweider FX, Ludewig K. Effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition in chronic schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;52:729–739. [PubMed] 39. Ludewig K, Geyer MA, Etzensberger M, Vollenweider FX. Stability of the acoustic startle reflex, prepulse inhibition, and habituation in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2002;55:129–137. [PubMed] 40. Weike AI, Bauer U, Hamm AO. Effective neuroleptic medication removes prepulse inhibition deficits in schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47:61–70. [PubMed] 41. Meincke U, Morth D, Voss T, Thelen B, Geyer MA, Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E. Prepulse inhibition of the acoustically evoked startle reflex in patients with an acute schizophrenic psychosis—a longitudinal study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;254:415–421. [PubMed] 42. Francis DD, Szegda K, Campbell G, Martin WD, Insel TR. Epigenetic sources of behavioral differences in mice. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:445–446. [PubMed] 43. Willott JF, Tanner L, O'Steen J, Johnson KR, Bogue MA, Gagnon L. Acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition in 40 inbred strains of mice. Behav Neurosci. 2003;117:716–727. [PubMed] 44. Anokhin AP, Heath AC, Myers E, Ralano A, Wood S. Genetic influences on prepulse inhibition of startle reflex in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2003;353:45–48. [PubMed] 45. Jovanovic T, Szilagyi S, Chakravorty S, et al. Menstrual cycle phase effects on prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Psychophysiology. 2004;41:401–406. [PubMed] 46. Swerdlow NR, Hartman PL, Auerbach PP. Changes in sensorimotor inhibition across the menstrual cycle: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 1997;41:452–460. [PubMed] 47. Kumari V, Soni W, Sharma T. Normalization of information processing deficits in schizophrenia with clozapine. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:1046–1051. [PubMed] 48. Swerdlow NR, Talledo J, Sutherland AN, Nagy D, Shoemaker JM. Antipsychotic effects on prepulse inhibition in normal 'low gating' humans and rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:2011–2021. [PubMed] 49. Braff DL, Geyer MA, Light GA, et al. Impact of prepulse characteristics on the detection of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2001;49:171–178. [PubMed] 50. Mackeprang T, Kristiansen KT, Glenthoj BY. Effects of antipsychotics on prepulse inhibition of the startle response in drug-naive schizophrenic patients. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;52:863–873. [PubMed] 51. Cadenhead KS, Geyer MA, Braff DL. Impaired startle prepulse inhibition and habituation in schizotypal patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:1862–1867. [PubMed] 52. Adler LE, Hoffer LD, Wiser A, Freedman R. Normalization of auditory physiology by cigarette smoking in schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:1856–1861. [PubMed] 53. Duncan E, Madonick S, Chakravorty S, et al. Effects of smoking on acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition in humans. Psychopharmacology. 2001;156:266–272. [PubMed] 54. Kumari V, Soni W, Sharma T. Influence of cigarette smoking on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response in schizophrenia. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2001;16:321–326. [PubMed] 55. Kumari V, Aasen I, Sharma T. Sex differences in prepulse inhibition deficits in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2004;69:219–235. [PubMed] 56. Rahman Q, Kumari V, Wilson GD. Sexual orientation-related differences in prepulse inhibition of the human startle response. Behav Neurosci. 2003;117:1096–1102. [PubMed] 57. Swerdlow NR, Monroe SM, Hartston HJ, Braff DL, Geyer MA, Auerbach PP. Men are more inhibited than women by weak prepulses. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;34:253–261. [PubMed] 58. Swerdlow NR, Filion D, Geyer MA, Braff DL. Normal” personality correlates of sensorimotor, cognitive and visuo-spatial gating. Biol Psychiatry. 1995;37:286–299. [PubMed] 59. Sobin C, Kiley-Brabeck K, Karayiorgou M. Lower prepulse inhibition in children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1090–1099. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 60. Paylor R, Glaser B, Mupo A, et al. Tbx1 haploinsufficiency is linked to behavioral disorders in mice and humans: implications for 22q11 deletion syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7729–7734. [PubMed] 61. Palmer AA, Breen LL, Flodman P, Conti LH, Spence MA, Printz MP. Identification of quantitative trait loci for prepulse inhibition in rats. Psychopharmacology. 2003;165:270–279. [PubMed] 62. Joober R, Zarate JM, Rouleau GA, Skamene E, Boksa P. Provisional mapping of quantitative trait loci modulating the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:765–781. [PubMed] 63. Petryshen TL, Kirby A, Hammer RP, Jr, et al. Two quantitative trait loci for prepulse inhibition of startle identified on mouse chromosome 16 using chromosome substitution strains. Genetics. 2005;171:1895–1904. [PubMed] 64. Geyer MA, McIlwain KL, Paylor R. Mouse genetic models for prepulse inhibition: an early review. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:1039–1053. [PubMed] 65. Swerdlow NR, Geyer MA. Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in rats after lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Behav Neurosci. 1993;107:104–117. [PubMed]
66. Eccles JC. The Inhibitory Pathways of the Central Nervous System. Liverpool, England: University Press; 1969.
67. Boutros NN, Belger A. Midlatency evoked potentials attentuation and augmentation reflect different aspects of sensory gating. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45:9717–9722. [PubMed] 68. Griffith J, Hoffer LD, Adler LE, Zerbe GO, Freedman R. Effects of sound intensity on a midlatency evoked response to repeated auditory stimuli in schizophrenic and normal subjects. Psychophysiology. 1995;32:460–466. [PubMed] 69. Griffith JM, Waldo M, Adler LE, Freedman R. Normalization of auditory sensory gating in schizophrenic patients after a brief period for sleep. Psychiatry Res. 1993;49:29–39. [PubMed] 70. Nagamoto HT, Adler LE, Waldo MC, Griffith J, Freedman R. Gating of auditory response in schizophrenics and normal controls. Effects of recording site and stimulation interval on the P50 wave. Schizophr Res. 1991;4:31–40. [PubMed] 71. Freedman R, Adler LE, Waldo M, et al. Inhibitory gating of an evoked response to repeated auditory stimuli in schizophrenic and normal subjects: human recordings, computer simulation, and an animal model. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53:1114–1121. [PubMed] 72. Waldo MC, Cawthra E, Adler LE, et al. Auditory sensory gating, hippocampal volume, and catecholamine metabolism in schizophrenics and their siblings. Schizophr Res. 1994;12:93–106. [PubMed]
73. Goff WR, Williamson PD, VanGilder JC, Allison T, Fisher TC. Neural origins of long latency evoked potentials recorded from the depth and from the cortical surface of the brain in man. Prog Clin Neurophysiol. 1980;7:126–145.
74. Wilson CL, Babb TL, Halgren E, Wang ML, Crandall PH. Habituation of human limbic neuronal response to sensory stimulation. Exp Neurol. 1984;7:126–145. [PubMed]
75. Nagamoto HT, Stevens KE, Fuller LL, Bernal S, Johnson R, Rose GM. Effects of intraventricular kainic acid on sensory gating of the rat N40 evoked potential [abstract] Soc Neurosci Abst. 1990;16:1351.
76. Luntz-Leybman V, Bickford P, Freedman R Cholinergic gating of response to auditory stimuli in rat hippocampus. Brain Res. 1992;587:130–136. [PubMed] 77. Grunwald T, Butros NN, Pezer N, et al. Neuronal substrates of sensory gating with the human brain. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53:511–519. [PubMed] 78. Adler LE, Hoffer LJ, Griffith J, Waldo MC, Freedman R. Normalization by nicotine of deficient auditory sensory gating in the relatives of schizophrenics. Biol Psychiatry. 1992;32:607–616. [PubMed] 79. Freedman R, Hall M, Adler LE, Leonard S. Evidence in postmortem brain tissue for decreased numbers of hippocampal nicotinic receptors in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1995;38:22–33. [PubMed] 80. Guan ZZ, Zhang X, Blennow K, Nordberg A. Decreased protein level of nicotinic receptor alpha7 subunit in the frontal cortex from schizophrenic brain. Neuroreport. 1999;10:1779–1782. [PubMed] 81. Martin-Ruiz CM, Haroutunian VH, Long P, et al. Dementia rating and nicotinic receptor expression in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:1222–1233. [PubMed] 82. Court J, Spurden D, Lloyd S, et al. Neuronal nicotinic receptors in dementia with Lewy bodies and schizophrenia: alpha-bungarotoxin and nicotine binding in the thalamus. J Neurochem. 1999;73:1590–1597. [PubMed] 83. Marutle A, Zhang X, Court J, et al. Laminar distribution of nicotinic receptor subtypes in cortical regions in schizophrenia. J Chem Neuroanat. 2001;22:115–126. [PubMed] 84. Stevens KE, Meltzer J, Stryker SL, Rose GM. Disruption of sensory gating by the alpha-2 selective noradrenergic antagonist yohimbine. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;33:130–132. [PubMed] 85. Adler LE, Hoffer LD, Nagamoto HT, Waldo MC, Kisley MA, Griffith JM. Yohimbine impairs P50 auditory sensory gating in normal subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1994;10:249–257. [PubMed]
86. Kang D-Y, Poole J, McCallin K, Fein G, Vinogradov S. Sensory gating deficit in schizophrenia: relation to catecholamine metabolites. Schizophr Res. 1997;24:234.
87. Adler LE, Pachtman E, Franks RD, Pecevich M, Waldo MC, Freedman R. Neurophysiological evidence for a deficit in neuronal mechanisms involved in sensory gating in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1982;17:639–654. [PubMed] 88. Freedman R, Adler LE, Waldo MC, Pachtman E, Franks RD. Neurophysiological evidence for a defect in inhibitory pathways in schizophrenia: comparison of medicated and drug-free patients. Biol Psychiatry. 1983;18:537–551. [PubMed] 89. Freedman R, Adler LE, Gerhardt GA, et al. Neurobiological studies of sensory gating in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1987;13:669–678. [PubMed] 90. Siegel C, Waldo M, Mizner G, Adler LE, Freedman R. Deficits in sensory gating in schizophrenic patients and their relatives. Evidence obtained with auditory evoked responses. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984;41:607–612. [PubMed] 91. Braff DL, Geyer MA. Sensorimotor gating and schizophrenia: human and animal model studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990;47:181–188. [PubMed] 92. Cullum CM, Harris JG, Waldo MC, et al. Neurophysiological and neuropsychological evidence for attentional dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1993;10:131–111. [PubMed] 93. Kathmann N, Engel RR. Sensory gating in normals and schizophrenics: a failure to find strong P50 suppression in normals. Biol Psychiatry. 1990;27:1216–1226. [PubMed] 94. Jin Y, Potkin SG, Patterson JV, Sandman CA, Hetrick WP, Bunney WE., Jr Effects of P50 temporal variability on sensory gating in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 1997;70:71–81. [PubMed] 95. Jin Y, Bunney WE, Jr, Sandman CA, et al. Is P50 suppression a measure of sensory gating in schizophrenia? Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:873–878. [PubMed] 96. Heckers S. Neuroimaging studies of the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Hippocampus. 2001;11:520–528. [PubMed] 97. Guterman Y, Josiasen RC, Bashore TR., Jr Attentional influence on the P50 component of the auditory event-related brain potential. Int J Psychophysiol. 1992;12:197–209. [PubMed] 98. Franks RD, Adler LE, Waldo MC, Alpert J, Freedman R. Neurophysiological studies of sensory gating in mania: comparison with schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1983;18:989–1005. [PubMed] 99. Ward PB, Hoffer LD, Liebert BJ, Catts SV, O'Donnell M, Adler LE. Replication of a P50 auditory gating deficit in Australian patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 1996;64:121–135. [PubMed] 100. Adler LE, Waldo M, Tacher A, Cawthra E, Baker N. Lack of relationship of auditory sensory gating defects to negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1990;3:131–138. [PubMed] 101. Boutros NN, Zouridakis G, Overall J. Replication and extension of P50 findings in schizophrenia. Clin Electroencephalogr. 1991;22:40–45. [PubMed] 102. Cadenhead KS, Light GA, Geyer MA, Braff DL. Sensory gating deficits assessed by the P50 event-related potential in subjects with schizotypal personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:55–59. [PubMed] 103. Miller C, Freedman R. Medial septal neuron activity in relation to an auditory sensory gating paradigm. Neuroscience. 1993;55:373–380. [PubMed] 104. Nagamoto HT, Adler LE, Hea RA, Griffith JM, McRae KA, Freedman R. Gating of auditory P50 in schizophrenics: unique effects of clozapine. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;40:181–188. [PubMed] 105. Becker J, Gomes I, Ghisolfi ES, et al. Clozapine, but not typical antipsychotics, correct P50 suppression deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;115:396–401. [PubMed] 106. McEvoy JP, Freudenreich O, Wilson WH. Smoking and therapeutic response to clozapine in patients with schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:125–129. [PubMed] 107. Adler LE, Cawthra EM, Donovan KA, et al. Improved P50 auditory gating with ondansetron in medicated schizophrenia patients. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:386–388. [PubMed] 108. Olincy A, Harris JG, Johnson LL, et al. Proof-of-concept trial of an α7 nicotinic agonist in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:630–638. [PubMed] 109. Light GA, Geyer MA, Clementz BA, Cadenhead KS, Braff DL. Normal P50 suppression in schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotic medications. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:767–771. [PubMed] 110. Adler LE, Olincy A, Cawthra EM, et al. Varied effects of atypical neuroleptics on P50 auditory gating in schizophrenia patients. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1822–1828. [PubMed] 111. Arango C, Summerfelt A, Buchanan RW. Olanzapine effects on auditory sensory gating in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:2066–2068. [PubMed] 112. Smith DA, Boutros NN, Schwarzkopf SB. Reliability of P50 auditory event-related potential indices of sensory gating. Psychophysiology. 1994;31:607–612. [PubMed] 113. Adler LE, Freedman R, Ross RG, Olincy A, Waldo MC. Elementary phenotypes in the neurobiological and genetic study of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:8–18. [PubMed] 114. Clements BA, Geyer MA, Braff DL. Poor P50 suppression among schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:1691–1694. [PubMed] 115. Waldo MC, Gerhardt G, Baker N, Drebing C, Adler L, Freedman R. Auditory sensory gating and catecholamine metabolism in schizophrenic and normal subjects. Psychiatry Res. 1992;44:21–32. [PubMed] 116. Freedman R, Coon H, Myles-Worsley M, et al. Linkage of a neurophysiological deficit in schizophrenia to a chromosome 15 locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:587–592. [PubMed] 117. Myles-Worsley M, Coon H, Byerley W, Waldo M, Young D, Freedman R. Developmental and genetic influences on the P50 sensory gating phenotype. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;25:549–561. [PubMed] 118. Patterson J, Jin Y, Gierczak M, et al. Effects of temporal variability on P50 and the gating ratio in schizophrenia: a frequency domain adaptive filter single-trial analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57:57–64. [PubMed] 119. Weiner E, Ball MP, Summerfelt A, Gold J, Buchanan R. Effects of sustained-release buproprion and supportive group therapy on cigarette consumption in patients with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:635–637. [PubMed] 120. Waldo MC, Graze K, De Graff Bender S, Adler LE, Freedman R. Premenstrual mood changes and gating of the auditory evoked potential. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1987;12:35–40. [PubMed] 121. Hall M-H, Schulze K, Rijsdijk F, et al. Heritability and reliability of P300, P50 and duration mismatch negativity. Behav Genet. 2006;36:845–857. [PubMed] 122. Young DA, Waldo M, Ruttledge JH, Freedman R. Heritability of inhibitory gating of the P50 auditory-evoked potential in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Neuropsychobiology. 2001;33:113–117. [PubMed] 123. Leonard S, Gault J, Hopkins J, et al. Association of promoter variants in the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene with an inhibitory deficit found in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:1085–1096. [PubMed] 124. Raux G, Bonnet-Brilhault F, Louchart S, et al. The -2bp deletion in exon 6 of the alpha 7-like nicotinic receptor subunit gene is a risk factor for the P50 sensory gating deficit. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7:1006–1011. [PubMed] 125. Houy E, Raux G, Thibaut F, et al. The promoter -194C polymorphism of the nicotinic alpha 7 receptor gene has a protective effect against the P50 sensory gating deficit. Mol Psychiatry. 2004;9:320–322. [PubMed]
126. Thibaut F, Raux G, Bonnet-Brilhault F, et al. P50 sensory gating deficit in schizophrenics and controls: the 2-bp deletion in Exon 6 of the alpha 7-like gene is a risk factor for the endophenotype. Schizophr Res. 2001;53:70.
127. Hallett PE. Primary and secondary saccades to goals defined by instructions. Vision Res. 1978;18:1279–1296. [PubMed] 128. McDowell JE, Myles-Worsley M, Coon H, Byerley W, Clementz BA. Measuring liability for schizophrenia using optimized antisaccade stimulus parameters. Psychophysiology. 1999;36:138–141. [PubMed] 129. Matthews A, Flohr H, Everling S. Cortical activation associated with midtrial change of instruction in a saccade task. Exp Brain Res. 2002;143:488–498. [PubMed] 130. Zhang M, Barash S. Persistent LIP activity in memory antisaccades: working memory for a sensorimotor transformation. J Neurophysiol. 2004;91:1424–1441. [PubMed] 131. Barash S, Zhang M. Switching of sensorimotor transformations: antisaccades and parietal cortex. Novartis Found Symp. 2006;270:59–71. discussion 71–74, 108–113. [PubMed] 132. Guitton D, Buchtel HA, Douglas RM. Frontal lobe lesions in man cause difficulties in suppressing reflexive glances and in generating goal-directed saccades. Exp Brain Res. 1985;58:455–472. [PubMed] 133. Johnston JL, Miller JD, Nath A. Ocular motor dysfunction in HIV-1-infected subjects: a quantitative oculographic analysis. Neurology. 1996;46:451–457. [PubMed] 134. Everling S, DeSouza JF. Rule-dependent activity for prosaccades and antisaccades in the primate prefrontal cortex. J Cogn Neurosci. 2005;17:1483–1496. [PubMed] 135. Pierrot-Deseilligny C, Muri RM, Nyffeler T, Milea D. The role of the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in ocular motor behavior. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1039:239–251. [PubMed] 136. Ploner CJ, Gaymard BM, Rivaud-Pechoux S, Pierrot-Deseilligny C. The prefrontal substrate of reflexive saccade inhibition in humans. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:1159–1165. [PubMed] 137. Amemori K, Sawaguchi T. Rule-dependent shifting of sensorimotor representation in the primate prefrontal cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:1895–1909. [PubMed] 138. Amador N, Schlag-Rey M, Schlag J. Primate antisaccade. II. Supplementary eye field neuronal activity predicts correct performance. J Neurophysiol. 2004;91:1672–1689. [PubMed] 139. McDowell JE, Clementz BA. Behavioral and brain imaging studies of saccadic performance in schizophrenia. Biol Psychol. 2001;57:5–22. [PubMed] 140. Raemaekers M, Jansma JM, Cahn W, et al. Neuronal substrate of the saccadic inhibition deficit in schizophrenia investigated with 3-dimensional event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:313–320. [PubMed] 141. Gaymard B, Ploner CJ, Rivaud S, Vermersch AI, Pierrot-Deseilligny C. Cortical control of saccades. Exp Brain Res. 1998;123:159–163. [PubMed] 142. Curtis CE, Calkins ME, Grove WM, Feil KJ, Iacono WG. Saccadic disinhibition in acute and remitted schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:100–106. [PubMed] 143. Clementz BA. Psychophysiological measures of (dis)inhibition as liability indicators for schizophrenia. Psychophysiology. 1998;35:648–668. [PubMed] 144. McDowell JE, Brown GG, Paulus M, et al. Neural correlates of refixation saccades and antisaccades in normal and schizophrenia subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;51:216–223. [PubMed] 145. Nakashima Y, Momose T, Sano I, et al. Cortical control of saccade in normal and schizophrenic subjects: a PET study using a task-evoked rCBF paradigm. Schizophr Res. 1994;12:259–264. [PubMed] 146. Klein C, Heinks T, Andresen B, Berg P, Moritz S. Impaired modulation of the saccadic contingent negative variation preceding antisaccades in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47:978–990. [PubMed] 147. Bagary MS, Hutton SB, Symms MR, et al. Structural neural networks subserving oculomotor function in first-episode schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56:620–627. [PubMed] 148. Fukushima J, Fukushima K, Chiba T, Tanaka S, Yamashita I, Kato M. Disturbances of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements in schizophrenic patients. Biol Psychiatry. 1988;23:670–677. [PubMed] 149. Ettinger U, Picchioni M, Hall MH, et al. Antisaccade performance in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia:the Maudsley twin study. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:543–545. [PubMed] 150. Ettinger U, Kumari V, Crawford TJ, et al. Smooth pursuit and antisaccade eye movements in siblings discordant for schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Res. 2004;38:177–184. [PubMed] 151. Maccabe JH, Simon H, Zanelli JW, Walwyn R, McDonald CD, Murray RM. Saccadic distractibility is elevated in schizophrenia patients, but not in their unaffected relatives. Psychol Med. 2005;35:1727–1736. [PubMed] 152. Kumari V, Ettinger U, Crawford TJ, Zachariah E, Sharma T. Lack of association between prepulse inhibition and antisaccadic deficits in chronic schizophrenia: implications for identification of schizophrenia endophenotypes. J Psychiatr Res. 2005;39:227–240. [PubMed] 153. Louchart-de la Chapelle S, Nkam I, Houy E, et al. A concordance study of three electrophysiological measures in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:466–474. [PubMed] 154. Tendolkar I, Ruhrmann S, Brockhaus-Dumke A, et al. Neural correlates of visuo-spatial attention during an antisaccade task in schizophrenia: an ERP study. Int J Neurosci. 2005;115:681–698. [PubMed] 155. Larrison-Faucher AL, Matorin AA, Sereno AB. Nicotine reduces antisaccade errors in task impaired schizophrenic subjects. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004;28:505–516. [PubMed] 156. Reuter B, Rakusan L, Kathmann N. Poor antisaccade performance in schizophrenia: an inhibition deficit? Psychiatry Res. 2005;135:1–10. [PubMed] 157. Hutton SB, Huddy V, Barnes TR, et al. The relationship between antisaccades, smooth pursuit, and executive dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56:553–559. [PubMed] 158. Ettinger U, Kumari V, Chitnis XA, et al. Volumetric neural correlates of antisaccade eye movements in first-episode psychosis. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1918–1921. [PubMed] 159. Calkins ME, Curtis CE, Iacono WG, Grove WM. Antisaccade performance is impaired in medically and psychiatrically healthy biological relatives of schizophrenia patients. Schizophr Res. 2004;71:167–178. [PubMed] 160. Curtis CE, Calkins ME, Iacono WG. Saccadic disinhibition in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives: a parametric study of the effects of increasing inhibitory load. Exp Brain Res. 2001;137:228–236. [PubMed] 161. McDowell JE, Clementz BA. The effect of fixation condition manipulations on antisaccade performance in schizophrenia: studies of diagnostic specificity. Exp Brain Res. 1997;115:333–344. [PubMed] 162. Broerse A, Holthausen EA, van den Bosch RJ, den Boer JA. Does frontal normality exist in schizophrenia? A saccadic eye movement study. Psychiatry Res. 2001;103:167–178. [PubMed] 163. Reuter B, Kathmann N. Using saccade tasks as a tool to analyze executive dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Acta Psychol. 2004;115:255–269. [PubMed] 164. Lee KH, Williams LM. Eye movement dysfunction as a biological marker of risk for schizophrenia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2000;34(suppl):S91–S100. [PubMed] 165. Sweeney JA, Strojwas MH, Mann JJ, Thase ME. Prefrontal and cerebellar abnormalities in major depression: evidence from oculomotor studies. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:584–594. [PubMed] 166. Tien AY, Ross DE, Pearlson G, Strauss ME. Eye movements and psychopathology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1996;184:331–338. [PubMed] 167. Hutton S, Kennard C. Oculomotor abnormalities in schizophrenia: a critical review. Neurology. 1998;50:604–609. [PubMed]
168. Iacono WG. The genetics of psychopathology as a tool for understanding the brain: the search for a genetic marker of schizophrenia. In: Lieblich I, editor. Genetics of the Brain. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier; 1982. pp. 62–91.
169. Karoumi B, Ventre-Dominey J, Vighetto A, Dalery J, d'Amato T. Saccadic eye movements in schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Res. 1998;77:9–19. [PubMed] 170. Ross RG, Harris JG, Olincy A, Radant A, Adler LE, Freedman R. Familial transmission of two independent saccadic abnormalities in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1998;30:59–70. [PubMed] 171. Gooding DC, Shea HB, Matts CW. Saccadic performance in questionnaire-identified schizotypes over time. Psychiatry Res. 2005;133:173–186. [PubMed] 172. Gooding DC, Mohapatra L, Shea HB. Temporal stability of saccadic task performance in schizophrenia and bipolar patients. Psychol Med. 2004;34:921–932. [PubMed] 173. Calkins ME, Iacono WG, Curtis CE. Smooth pursuit and antisaccade performance evidence trait stability in schizophrenia patients and their relatives. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003;49:139–146. [PubMed] 174. Ettinger U, Kumari V, Crawford TJ, Davis RE, Sharma T, Corr PJ. Reliability of smooth pursuit, fixation, and saccadic eye movements. Psychophysiology. 2003;40:620–628. [PubMed] 175. Radant A, Dobie DJ, Calkins ME, et al. Successful multi-site measurement of antisaccade performance deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2006 Oct 2; [Epub ahead of print] [PubMed] 176. Thaker GK, Kirkpatrick B, Buchanan RW, Ellsberry R, Lahti A, Tamminga C. Oculomotor abnormalities and their clinical correlates in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1989;25:491–497. [PubMed]
177. Thaker GK, Buchanan R, Kirkpatrick B, Tamminga CA. Oculomotor performance in schizophrenia. In: Schulz CS, Tamminga CA, editors. Schizophrenia: Scientific Progress. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1990. pp. 115–123.
178. Hutton SB, Joyce EM, Barnes TR, Kennard C. Saccadic distractibility in first-episode schizophrenia. Neuropsychologia. 2002;40:1729–1736. [PubMed] 179. Hutton SB, Crawford TJ, Puri BK, et al. Smooth pursuit and saccadic abnormalities in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychol Med. 1998;28:685–692. [PubMed] 180. Broerse A, Crawford TJ, den Boer JA. Differential effects of olanzapine and risperidone on cognition in schizophrenia? A saccadic eye movement study. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2002;14:454–460. [PubMed] 181. Mahlberg R, Steinacher B, Mackert A, Flechtner KM. Basic parameters of saccadic eye movements—differences between unmedicated schizophrenia and affective disorder patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;251:205–210. [PubMed] 182. Ettinger U, Kumari V, Zachariah E, et al. Effects of procyclidine on eye movements in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:2199–2208. [PubMed] 183. Wonodi I, Adami H, Sherr J, Avila M, Hong LE, Thaker GK. Naltrexone treatment of tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004;24:441–445. [PubMed] 184. Allen JS, Lambert AJ, Johnson FY, Schmidt K, Nero KL. Antisaccadic eye movements and attentional asymmetry in schizophrenia in three Pacific populations. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996;94:258–265. [PubMed] 185. Karoumi B, Saoud M, d'Amato T, et al. Poor performance in smooth pursuit and antisaccadic eye-movement tasks in healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2001;101:209–219. [PubMed] 186. Nkam I, Thibaut F, Denise P, et al. Saccadic and smooth-pursuit eye movements in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2001;48:145–153. [PubMed] 187. Maruff P, Danckert J, Pantelis C, Currie J. Saccadic and attentional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Psychol Med. 1998;28:1091–1100. [PubMed] 188. Depatie L, O'Driscoll GA, Holahan AL, et al. Nicotine and behavioral markers of risk for schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:1056–1070. [PubMed] 189. Burke JG, Reveley MA. Improved antisaccade performance with risperidone in schizophrenia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;72:449–454. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 190. Chaudhry IB, Soni SD, Hellewell JS, Deakin JF. Effects of the 5HT antagonist cyproheptadine on neuropsychological function in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2002;53:17–24. [PubMed] 191. Malone SM, Iacono WG. Error rate on the antisaccade task: heritability and developmental change in performance among preadolescent and late-adolescent female twin youth. Psychophysiology. 2002;39:664–673. [PubMed] 192. Brownstein J, Krastoshevsky O, McCollum C, et al. Antisaccade performance is abnormal in schizophrenia patients but not in their biological relatives. Schizophr Res. 2003;63:13–25. [PubMed] 193. Levy DL, O'Driscoll G, Matthysse S, Cook SR, Holzman PS, Mendell NR. Antisaccade performance in biological relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2004;71:113–125. [PubMed] 194. Myles-Worsley M, Coon H, McDowell J, et al. Linkage of a composite inhibitory phenotype to a chromosome 22q locus in eight Utah families. Am J Med Genet. 1999;88:544–550. [PubMed] 195. Egan MF, Goldberg TE, Kolachana BS, et al. Effect of COMT Val108/158 Met genotype on frontal lobe function and risk for schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6917–6922. [PubMed] 196. Naatanen R, Paavilainen P, Alho K, Reinikainen K, Sams M. Do event-related potentials reveal the mechanism of the auditory sensory memory in the human brain? Neurosci Lett. 1989;98:217–221. [PubMed] 197. Gene-Cos N, Ring HA, Pottinger RC, Barrett G. Possible roles for mismatch negativity in neuropsychiatry. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 1999;12:17–27. [PubMed] 198. Michie PT. What has MMN revealed about the auditory system in schizophrenia? Int J Psychophysiol. 2001;42:177–194. [PubMed] 199. Naatanen R. Mismatch negativity: clinical research and possible applications. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003;48:179–188. [PubMed] 200. Kathmann N, Frodl-Bauch T, Hegerl U. Stability of the mismatch negativity under different stimulus and attention conditions. Clin Neurophysiol. 1999;110:317–323. [PubMed] 201. Kujala T, Kallio J, Tervaniemi M, Naatanen R. The mismatch negativity as an index of temporal processing in audition. Clin Neurophysiol. 2001;112:1712–1719. [PubMed] 202. Pekkonen E, Rinne T, Naatanen R. Variability and replicability of the mismatch negativity. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1995;96:546–554. [PubMed] 203. Light GA, Braff DL. Stability of mismatch negativity deficits and their relationship to functional impairments in chronic schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1741–1743. [PubMed]
204. Naatanen R. Attention and Brain Function. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.; 1992.
205. Alho K, Sainio K, Sajaniemi N, Reinikainen K, Naatanen R. Event-related brain potential of human newborns to pitch change of an acoustic stimulus. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1990;77:151–155. [PubMed] 206. Cheour-Luhtanen M, Alho K, Sainio K, et al. The ontogenetically earliest discriminative response of the human brain. Psychophysiology. 1996;33:478–481. [PubMed] 207. Huotilainen M, Kujala A, Hotakainen M, et al. Auditory magnetic responses of healthy newborns. Neuroreport. 2003;14:1871–1875. [PubMed] 208. Nashida T, Yabe H, Sato Y, et al. Automatic auditory information processing in sleep. Sleep. 2000;23:821–828. [PubMed] 209. Sabri M, Campbell KB. The effects of digital filtering on mismatch negativity in wakefulness and slow-wave sleep. J Sleep Res. 2002;11:123–127. [PubMed] 210. Fischer C, Morlet D, Bouchet P, Luaute J, Jourdan C, Salord F. Mismatch negativity and late auditory evoked potentials in comatose patients. Clin Neurophysiol. 1999;110:1601–1610. [PubMed] 211. Kane NM, Curry SH, Rowlands CA, et al. Event-related potentials—neurophysiological tools for predicting emergence and early outcome from traumatic coma. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22:39–46. [PubMed] 212. Morlet D, Bouchet P, Fischer C. Mismatch negativity and N100 monitoring: potential clinical value and methodological advances. Audiol Neurootol. 2000;5:198–206. [PubMed] 213. Binder LM, Kelly MP, Villanueva MR, Winslow MM. Motivation and neuropsychological test performance following mild head injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2003;25:420–430. [PubMed] 214. Carrillo-de-la-Pena MT, Cadaveira F. The effect of motivational instructions on P300 amplitude. Neurophysiol Clin. 2000;30:232–239. [PubMed] 215. Pailing PE, Segalowitz SJ. The error-related negativity as a state and trait measure: motivation, personality, and ERPs in response to errors. Psychophysiology. 2004;41:84–95. [PubMed] 216. Perry W, Potterat EG, Braff DL. Self-monitoring enhances Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in patients with schizophrenia: performance is improved by simply asking patients to verbalize their sorting strategy. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2001;7:344–352. [PubMed] 217. Reitan RM, Wolfson D. Conation: a neglected aspect of neuropsychological functioning. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2000;15:443–453. [PubMed] 218. Reitan RM, Wolfson D. The differential effect of conation on intelligence test scores among brain-damaged and control subjects. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2004;19:29–35. [PubMed] 219. Braff DL, Light GA. Preattentional and attentional cognitive deficits as targets for treating schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology. 2004;174:75–85. [PubMed] 220. Alho K, Woods DL, Algazi A, Knight RT, Naatanen R. Lesions of frontal cortex diminish the auditory mismatch negativity. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1994;91:353–362. [PubMed] 221. Baldeweg T, Klugman A, Gruzelier JH, Hirsch SR. Impairment in frontal but not temporal components of mismatch negativity in schizophrenia. Int J Psychophysiol. 2002;43:111–122. [PubMed] 222. Javitt DC, Steinschneider M, Schroeder CE, Vaughan HG, Arezzo JC. Detection of stimulus deviance within primate primary auditory cortex: intracortical mechanisms of mismatch negativity (MMN) generation. Brain Res. 1994;667:192–200. [PubMed] 223. Kasai K, Nakagome K, Itoh K, et al. Multiple generators in the auditory automatic discrimination process in humans. Neuroreport. 1999;10:2267–2271. [PubMed] 224. Muller BW, Juptner M, Jentzen W, Muller SP. Cortical activation to auditory mismatch elicited by frequency deviant and complex novel sounds: a PET study. Neuroimage. 2002;17:231–239. [PubMed] 225. Naatanen R, Alho K. Generators of electrical and magnetic mismatch responses in humans. Brain Topogr. 1995;7:315–320. [PubMed] 226. Park HJ, Kwon JS, Youn T, et al. Statistical parametric mapping of LORETA using high density EEG and individual MRI: application to mismatch negativities in schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp. 2002;17:168–178. [PubMed] 227. Sato Y, Yabe H, Todd J, et al. Impairment in activation of a frontal attention-switch mechanism in schizophrenic patients. Biol Psychol. 2003;62:49–63. [PubMed] 228. Schairer KS, Gould HJ, Pousson MA. Source generators of mismatch negativity to multiple deviant stimulus types. Brain Topogr. 2001;14:117–130. [PubMed] 229. Schall U, Catts SV, Karayanidis F, Ward PB. Auditory event-related potential indices of fronto-temporal information processing in schizophrenia syndromes: valid outcome prediction of clozapine therapy in a three-year follow-up. Int J Neuropsychopharmcol. 1999;2:83–93. [PubMed] 230. Schall U, Johnston P, Todd J, Ward PB, Michie PT. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory mismatch processing: an event-related fMRI study of duration-deviant oddballs. Neuroimage. 2003;20:729–736. [PubMed] 231. Cheour M, Ceponiene R, Hukki J, Haapanen ML, Naatanen R, Alho K. Brain dysfunction in neonates with cleft palate revealed by the mismatch negativity. Clin Neurophysiol. 1999;110:324–328. [PubMed] 232. Cheour M, Haapanen ML, Ceponiene R, Hukki J, Ranta R, Naatanen R. Mismatch negativity (MMN) as an index of auditory sensory memory deficit in cleft-palate and CATCH syndrome children. Neuroreport. 1998;9:2709–2712. [PubMed] 233. Ilvonen TM, Kujala T, Kiesilainen A, et al. Auditory discrimination after left-hemisphere stroke. A mismatch negativity follow-up study. Stroke. 2003;34:1746–1751. [PubMed] 234. Jansson-Verkasalo E, Korpilahti P, Jantti V, et al. Neurophysiologic correlates of deficient phonological representations and object naming in prematurely born children. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;115:179–187. [PubMed] 235. Kraus N, Micco AG, Koch DB, et al. The mismatch negativity cortical evoked potential elicited by speech in cochlear-implant users. Hear Res. 1993;65:118–124. [PubMed] 236. Javitt DC, Steinschneider M, Schroeder CE, Arezzo JC. Role of cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in auditory sensory memory and mismatch negativity generation: implications for schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:11962–11967. [PubMed] 237. Umbricht D, Schmid L, Koller R, Vollenweider FX, Hell D, Javitt DC. Ketamine-induced deficits in auditory and visual context-dependent processing in healthy volunteers: implications for models of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57:1139–1147. [PubMed] 238. Umbricht D, Koller R, Vollenweider FX, Schmid L. Mismatch negativity predicts psychotic experiences induced by NMDA receptor antagonist in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;51:400–406. [PubMed] 239. Shelley AM, Ward PB, Catts SV, Michie PT, Andrews S, McConaghy N. Mismatch negativity: an index of a preattentive processing deficit in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;30:1059–1062. [PubMed] 240. Umbricht D, Krljes S. Mismatch negativity in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2005;76:1–23. [PubMed] 241. Catts SV, Shelley AM, Ward PB, et al. Brain potential evidence for an auditory sensory memory deficit in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152:213–219. [PubMed] 242. Umbricht D, Koller R, Schmid L, et al. How specific are deficits in mismatch negativity generation to schizophrenia? Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53:1120–1131. [PubMed] 243. Oades RD, Dittmann-Balcar A, Zerbin D, Grzella I. Impaired attention-dependent augmentation of MMN in nonparanoid vs paranoid schizophrenic patients: a comparison with obsessive-compulsive disorder and healthy subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 1997;41:1196–1210. [PubMed] 244. Oades RD, Zerbin D, Dittmann-Balcar A, Eggers C. Auditory event-related potential (ERP) and difference-wave topography in schizophrenic patients with/without active hallucinations and delusions: a comparison with young obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy subjects. Int J Psychophysiol. 1996;22:185–214. [PubMed] 245. Towey JP, Tenke CE, Bruder GE, et al. Brain event-related potential correlates of overfocused attention in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychophysiology. 1994;31:535–543. [PubMed] 246. van der Stelt O, Gunning WB, Snel J, Kok A. No electrocortical evidence of automatic mismatch dysfunction in children of alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21:569–575. [PubMed] 247. Tervaniemi M, Lehtokoski A, Sinkkonen J, Virtanen J, Ilmoniemi RJ, Naatanen R. Test-retest reliability of mismatch negativity for duration, frequency and intensity changes. Clin Neurophysiol. 1999;110:1388–1393. [PubMed] 248. Escera C, Yago E, Polo MD, Grau C. The individual replicability of mismatch negativity at short and long inter-stimulus intervals. Clin Neurophysiol. 2000;111:546–551. [PubMed] 249. Joutsiniemi SL, Ilvonen T, Sinkkonen J, et al. The mismatch negativity for duration decrement of auditory stimuli in healthy subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1998;108:154–159. [PubMed] 250. Umbricht D, Javitt D, Novak G, et al. Effects of clozapine on auditory event-related potentials in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;44:716–725. [PubMed] 251. Umbricht D, Javitt D, Novak G, et al. Effects of risperidone on auditory event-related potentials in schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmcol. 1999;2:299–304. [PubMed] 252. Korostenskaja M, Dapsys K, Siurkute A, Maciulis V, Ruksenas O, Kahkonen S. Effects of olanzapine on auditory P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2005;29:543–548. [PubMed] 253. Shinozaki N, Yabe H, Sato Y, et al. The difference in mismatch negativity between the acute and post-acute phase of schizophrenia. Biol Psychol. 2002;59:105–119. [PubMed] 254. Kawakubo Y, Kasai K. Support for an association between mismatch negativity and social functioning in schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30:1367–1368. [PubMed] 255. Light GA, Braff DL. Mismatch negativity deficits are associated with poor functioning in schizophrenia patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:127–136. [PubMed] 256. Siegel SJ, Connolly P, Liang Y, et al. Effects of strain, novelty, and NMDA blockade on auditory-evoked potentials in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:675–682. [PubMed] 257. Jessen F, Fries T, Kucharski C, et al. Amplitude reduction of the mismatch negativity in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Neurosci Lett. 2001;309:185–188. [PubMed] 258. Michie PT, Innes-Brown H, Todd J, Jablensky AV. Duration mismatch negativity in biological relatives of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;52:749–758. [PubMed] 259. Bar-Haim Y, Marshall PJ, Fox NA, Schorr EA, Gordon-Salant S. Mismatch negativity in socially withdrawn children. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:17–24. [PubMed] 260. Schreiber H, Stolz-Born G, Kornhuber HH, Born J. Event-related potential correlates of impaired selective attention in children at high risk for schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1992;32:634–651. [PubMed] 261. Javitt DC, Shelley AM, Silipo G, Lieberman JA. Deficits in auditory and visual context-dependent processing in schizophrenia: defining the pattern. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57:1131–1137. [PubMed] 262. Umbricht DS, Bates JA, Lieberman JA, Kane JM, Javitt DC. Electrophysiological indices of automatic and controlled auditory information processing in first-episode, recent-onset and chronic schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59:762–772. [PubMed] 263. Bramon E, Croft RJ, McDonald C, et al. Mismatch negativity in schizophrenia: a family study. Schizophr Res. 2004;67:1–10. [PubMed] 264. Salisbury DF, Shenton ME, Griggs CB, Bonner-Jackson A, McCarley RW. Mismatch negativity in chronic schizophrenia and first-episode schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:686–694. [PubMed] 265. Brockhaus-Dumke A, Tendolkar I, Pukrop R, Schultze-Lutter F, Klosterkotter J, Ruhrmann S. Impaired mismatch negativity generation in prodromal subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2005;73:297–310. [PubMed] 266. Cheour M, Haapanen ML, Hukki J, et al. The first neurophysiological evidence for cognitive brain dysfunctions in children with CATCH. Neuroreport. 1997;8:1785–1787. [PubMed] 267. Baker K, Baldeweg T, Sivagnanasundaram S, Scambler P, Skuse D. COMT Val108/158 Met modifies mismatch negativity and cognitive function in 22q11 deletion syndrome. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58:23–31. [PubMed] 268. Glatt SJ, Faraone SV, Tsuang MT. Association between a functional catechol O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and schizophrenia: meta-analysis of case-control and family-based studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:469–476. [PubMed] 269. Strous RD, Lapidus R, Viglin D, Kotler M, Lachman HM. Analysis of an association between the COMT polymorphism and clinical symptomatology in schizophrenia. Neurosci Lett. 2006;393:170–173. [PubMed] 270. Reinvang I, Espeseth T, Gjerstad L. Cognitive ERPs are related to ApoE allelic variation in mildly cognitively impaired patients. Neurosci Lett. 2005;382:346–351. [PubMed]
271. Regan D. Human Brain Electrophysiology. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing; 1989.
272. Turetsky BI, Colbath EA, Gur RE. P300 subcomponent abnormalities in schizophrenia: I. Physiological evidence for gender and subtype specific differences in regional pathology. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:84–96. [PubMed] 273. Squires NK, Squires KC, Hillyard SA. Two varieties of long-latency positive waves evoked by unpredictable auditory stimuli in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1975;38:387–340. [PubMed] 274. Halgren E, Squires NK, Wilson CL, Rohrbaugh JW, Babb TL, Crandall PH. Endogenous potentials generated in the human hippocampal formation and amygdala by infrequent events. Science. 1980;210:803–805. [PubMed] 275. Smith ME, Halgren E, Sokolik M, et al. The intracranial topography of the P3 event-related potential elicited during auditory oddball. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1990;76:235–248. [PubMed] 276. Stapleton JM, Halgren E. Endogenous potentials evoked in simple cognitive tasks: depth components and task correlates. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1987;67:44–52. [PubMed] 277. Kiehl KA, Laurens KR, Duty TL, Forster BB, Liddle PF. Neural sources involved in auditory target detection and novelty processing: an event-related fMRI study. Psychophysiology. 2001;38:133–142. [PubMed] 278. Yingling C, Hosobuchi Y. A subcortical correlate of P300 in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1984;59:72–76. [PubMed]
279. McCarthy G, Wood CC. Intracranial recordings of endogenous ERPs in humans. In: Ellingson RJ, Murray NMF, Halliday AM, editors. The London Symposia. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science; 1987. pp. 331–337.
280. Linden DEJ. The P300: where in the brain is it produced and what does it tell us? Neuroscientist. 2005;11:563–576. [PubMed] 281. Braff DL. Information processing and attention dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1993;19:233–259. [PubMed] 282. Duncan CC. Event-related brain potentials: a window on information processing in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1988;14:199–203. [PubMed] 283. Roth WT, Cannon FH. Some features of the auditory event-related response in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1972;27:466–471. [PubMed] 284. O'Donnell BF, Faux SF, McCarley RW, et al. Increased rate of P300 latency prolongation with age in schizophrenia. Electrophysiological evidence for a neurodegenerative process. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52:544–549. [PubMed] 285. Jeon YW, Polich J. Meta-analysis of P300 and schizophrenia: paradigms, and practical implications. Psychophysiology. 2003;40:684–701. [PubMed] 286. Blackwood DH, Whalley LJ, Christie JE, Blackburn IM, St Clair DM, McInnes A. Changes in auditory P3 event-related potential in schizophrenia and depression. Br J Psychiatry. 1987;150:154–160. [PubMed] 287. Saitoh O, Niwa S, Hiramatsu K, Kameyama T, Rymar K, Itoh K. Abnormalities in late positive components of event-related potentials may reflect a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 1984;19:293–303. [PubMed] 288. St Clair D, Blackwood D, Muir W. P300 abnormality in schizophrenic subtypes. J Psychiatr Res. 1989;23:49–55. [PubMed] 289. Turetsky BI, Colbath EA, Gur RE. P300 subcomponent abnormalities in schizophrenia: II. Longitudinal stability and relationship to symptom change. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:31–39. [PubMed] 290. Pfefferbaum A, Ford JM, White PM, Roth WT. P3 in schizophrenia is affected by stimulus modality, response requirements, medication status, and negative symptoms. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46:1035–1044. [PubMed] 291. McCarley RW, Faux SF, Shenton ME, Nestor PG, Adams J. Event-related potentials in schizophrenia: their biological and clinical correlates and a new model of schizophrenic pathophysiology. Schizophr Res. 1991;4:209–231. [PubMed]
292. Duncan CC, Morisha J, Fawcett R, Kirch D. P300 in schizophrenia: state or trait marker? Psychopharmacol Bull. 1987;23:497–501.
293. van der Stelt O, Lieberman JA, Belger A. Auditory P300 in high-risk, recent-onset and chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2005;77:309–320. [PubMed] 294. Ford JM, White PM, Csernansky JG, Faustman WO, Roth WT, Pfefferbaum A. ERPs in schizophrenia: effects of antipsychotic medication. Biol Psychiatry. 1994;36:153–170. [PubMed] 295. Juckel G, Müller-Schubert A, Gaebel W, Hegerl U. Residual symptoms and P300 in schizophrenic outpatients. Psychiatry Res. 1996;65:23–32. [PubMed] 296. Mathalon DH, Ford JM, Pfefferbaum A. Trait and state aspects of P300 amplitude reduction in schizophrenia: a retrospective longitudinal study. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47:434–449. [PubMed] 297. Faux SF, Torello MW, McCarley RW, Shenton ME, Duffy FH. P300 in schizophrenia: confirmation and statistical validation of temporal region deficit in P300 topography. Biol Psychiatry. 1988;23:776–790. [PubMed] 298. McCarley RW, Shenton ME, O'Donnell BF, et al. Auditory P300 abnormalities and left posterior superior temporal gyrus volume reduction in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50:190–197. [PubMed]
299. Turetsky BI, Raz J, Alsop D, Charbonnier D, Schroeder L, Gur RE. Integrated ERP/fMRI analysis of deviance processing in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47:172S.
300. Grillon C, Courchesne E, Ameli R, Geyer MA, Braff DL. Increased distractibility in schizophrenic patients. Electrophysiologic and behavioral evidence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990;47:171–179. [PubMed] 301. Ford JM, Sullivan EV, Marsh L, White PM, Lim KO, Pfefferbaum A. The relationship between P300 amplitude and regional gray matter volumes depends upon the attentional system engaged. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1994;90:214–228. [PubMed] 302. Polich J, Ladish C, Bloom FE. P300 assessment of early Alzheimer's disease. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1990;77:179–189. [PubMed] 303. Hesselbrock V, Begleiter H, Porjesz B, O'Connor S, Bauer L. P300 event-related potential amplitude as an endophenotype of alcoholism—evidence from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism. J Biomed Sci. 2001;8:77–82. [PubMed] 304. Salisbury DF, Shenton ME, McCarley RW. P300 topography differs in schizophrenia and manic psychosis. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45:98–106. [PubMed] 305. Gangadhar BN, Ancy J, Janakiramaiah N, Umapathy C. P300 amplitude in non-bipolar, melancholic depression. J Affect Disord. 1993;28:57–60. [PubMed]
306. Fabiani M, Gratton G, Karis D, Donchin E. Definition, identification and reliability of measurement of the P300 component of the event-related brain potential. In: Ackles PK, Jennings JR, Coles MGH, editors. Advances in Psychophysiology. London, England: JAI Press; 1986. pp. 1–78.
307. Kileny PR, Kripal JP. Test-retest variability of auditory event-related potentials. Ear Hear. 1987;8:110–114. [PubMed] 308. Kinoshita SM, Inoue M, Maeda H, Nakamura J, Morita K. Long-term patterns of change in ERPs across repeated measurements. Physiol Behav. 1996;60:1087–1092. [PubMed] 309. Pollock VE, Schneider LS. Reliability of late positive component activity (P3) in healthy elderly adults. J Gerontol. 1992;47:M88–M92. [PubMed] 310. Segalowitz SJ, Barnes KL. The reliability of ERP components in the auditory oddball paradigm. Psychophysiology. 1993;30:451–459. [PubMed] 311. Sinha R, Bernardy N, Parsons OA. Long-term test-retest reliability of event-related potentials in normals and alcoholics. Biol Psychiatry. 1992;32:992–1003. [PubMed] 312. Ford JM, Roth WT, Menod V, Pfefferbaum A. Failures of automatic and strategic processing in schizophrenia: comparisons of event-related brain potential and startle blink modification. Schizophr Res. 1998;37:149–163. [PubMed] 313. Egan MF, Duncan CC, Suddath RL, Kirch DG, Mirsky AF, Wyatt RJ. Event-related potential abnormalities correlate with structural brain alterations and clinical features in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1994;11:259–271. [PubMed] 314. Brown K, Gordon E, Williams L, et al. Misattribution of sensory input reflected in dysfunctional target: non-target ERPs in schizophrenia. Psychol Med. 2000;30:1443–1449. [PubMed] 315. O'Connor S, Morzorati S, Christian JC, Li T-K. Heritable features of the auditory oddball event-related potential: peaks, latencies, morphology and topography. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1994;92:115–125. [PubMed] 316. Polich J, Burns T. P300 from identical twins. Neuropsychologia. 1987;25:299–304. [PubMed] 317. Wright MJ, Hansell NK, Geffen GM, Geffen LB, Smith GA, Martin NG. Genetic influence on the variance in P3 amplitude and latency. Behav Genet. 2001;31:555–565. [PubMed] 318. van Beijsterveldt CE, van Baal GC, Molenaar PC, Boomsma DI, de Geus EJ. Stability of genetic and environmental influences on P300 amplitude: a longitudinal study in adolescent twins. Behav Genet. 2001;31:533–543. [PubMed] 319. Eischen SE, Polich J. P300 from families. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1994;92:369–372. [PubMed] 320. Rogers TD, Deary I. The P300 component of the auditory event-related potential in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1991;83:412–416. [PubMed] 321. Blackwood DHR, St Clair DM, Muir WJ, Duffy JC. Auditory P300 and eye tracking dysfunction in schizophrenic pedigrees. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1991;48:899–909. [PubMed] 322. Frangou S, Sharma T, Alarcon G, et al. The Maudsley Family Study, II: endogenous event-related potentials in familial schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1997;23:45–53. [PubMed] 323. Karoumi B, Laurent A, Rosenfeld F, et al. Alteration of event related potentials in siblings discordant for schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2000;41:325–334. [PubMed] 324. Kidogami Y, Yoneda H, Asaba H, Sakai T. P300 in first degree relatives of schizophrenics. Schizophr Res. 1992;6:9–13. [PubMed] 325. Kimble M, Lyons M, O'Donnell B, Nestor P, Niznikiewicz M, Toomey R. The effect of family status and schizotypy on electrophysiologic measures of attention and semantic processing. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47:402–412. [PubMed] 326. Turetsky BI, Colbath EA, Gur RE. P300 subcomponent abnormalities in schizophrenia: III. Deficits in unaffected siblings of schizophrenic probands. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;47:380–390. [PubMed] 327. Weisbrod M, Hill H, Niethammer R, Sauer H. Genetic influence on auditory information processing in schizophrenia: P300 in monozygotic twins. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:721–725. [PubMed] 328. Cornblatt BA, Keilp JG. Impaired attention, genetics, and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1994;20:31–46. [PubMed] 329. Winterer G, Egan MF, Raedler T, et al. P300 and genetic risk for schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:1158–1167. [PubMed] 330. Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Reich T, et al. Quantitative trait loci analysis of human event-related brain potentials: P3 voltage. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1998;108:244–250. [PubMed] 331. Porjesz B, Begleiter H, Wang K, et al. Linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping of ERP and EEG phenotypes. Biol Psychol. 2002;61:229–248. [PubMed] 332. Harrison PJ, Weinberger DR. Schizophrenia genes, gene expression, and neuropathology: on the matter of their convergence. Mol Psychiatry. 2005;10:40–68. [PubMed] 333. Hill SY, Locke J, Zezza N, et al. Genetic association between reduced P300 amplitude and the DRD2 dopamine receptor A1 allele in children at high risk for alcoholism. Biol Psychiatry. 1998;43:40–51. [PubMed] 334. Mulert C, Juckel G, Giegling I, et al. A Ser9Gly polymorphism in the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) and event-related P300 potentials. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:1335–134. [PubMed] 335. Blackwood DH, Fordyce A, Walker MT, St Clair DM, Porteous DJ, Muir W. Schizophrenia and affective disorders—cosegregation with a translocation at chromosome 1q42 that directly disrupts brain-expressed genes: clinical and P300 findings in a family. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;69:428–433. [PubMed] 336. Swerdlow NR, Geyer MA, Shoemaker JM, et al. Convergence and divergence in the neurochemical regulation of prepulse inhibition of startle and N40 suppression in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:506–515. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 337. Schwarzkopf SB, Lamberti JS, Smith DA. Concurrent assessment of acoustic startle and auditory P50 evoked potential measures of sensory inhibition. Biol Psychiatry. 1993;33:815–828. [PubMed] 338. Braff DL, Light GA, Swerdlow NR. Prepulse inhibition and P50 suppression are both deficient but are not correlated in schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry. In press. [PubMed] 339. Calkins ME, Dobie DJ, Cadenhead KS, et al. The consortium on the genetics of endophenotypes in schizophrenia (COGS): “model” recruitment, assessment, and endophenotyping methods for a multi-site collaboration. Schizophr Bull. October 11, 2006. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbl044. [PMC free article] [PubMed]