Improvements in donor screening and testing and viral inactivation of plasma derivatives together have resulted in substantial declines in transfusion-transmitted infections over the last two decades. Most recently, nucleic acid testing techniques have been developed to screen blood and plasma donations for evidence of very recent viral infections that could be missed by conventional serologic tests. Nonetheless, the blood supply remains vulnerable to new and reemerging infections. In recent years, numerous infectious agents found worldwide have been identified as potential threats to the blood supply. Several newly discovered hepatitis viruses and agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies present unique challenges in assessing possible risks they may pose to the safety of blood and plasma products.