PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of eidLink to Publisher's site
 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 Jul-Aug; 7(4): 686–691.
PMCID: PMC2631774

West Nile fever outbreak, Israel, 2000: epidemiologic aspects.

Abstract

From August 1 to October 31, 2000, 417 cases of West Nile (WN) fever were serologically confirmed throughout Israel; 326 (78%) were hospitalized patients. Cases were distributed throughout the country; the highest incidence was in central Israel, the most populated part. Men and women were equally affected, and their mean age was 54+/-23.8 years (range 6 months to 95 years). Incidence per 1,000 population increased from 0.01 in the 1st decade of life to 0.87 in the 9th decade. There were 35 deaths (case-fatality rate 8.4%), all in patients >50 years of age. Age-specific case-fatality rate increased with age. Central nervous system involvement occurred in 170 (73%) of 233 hospitalized patients. The countrywide spread, number of hospitalizations, severity of the disease, and high death rate contrast with previously reported outbreaks in Israel.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (81K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Chowers MY, Lang R, Nassar F, Ben-David D, Giladi M, Rubinshtein E, Itzhaki A, Mishal J, Siegman-Igra Y, Kitzes R, et al. Clinical characteristics of the West Nile fever outbreak, Israel, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 Jul-Aug;7(4):675–678. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cohen D, Zaide Y, Karasenty E, Schwarz M, LeDuc JW, Slepon R, Ksiazek TG, Shemer J, Green MS. Prevalence of antibodies to West Nile fever, sandfly fever Sicilian, and sandfly fever Naples viruses in healthy adults in Israel. Public Health Rev. 1999;27(1-3):217–230. [PubMed]
  • BERNKOPF H. [The isolation of the west nile virus in Israel]. Harefuah. 1953 Sep 1;45(5):99–101. [PubMed]
  • BERNKOPF H, LEVINE S, NERSON R. Isolation of West Nile virus in Israel. J Infect Dis. 1953 Nov-Dec;93(3):207–218. [PubMed]
  • GOLDBLUM N, STERK VV, PADERSKI B. West Nile fever; the clinical features of the disease and the isolation of West Nile virus from the blood of nine human cases. Am J Hyg. 1954 Jan;59(1):89–103. [PubMed]
  • RADT P. Clinical observations on patients with West Nile fever during outbreaks of the disease in 1950-1953. Harefuah. 1955 Aug 1;49(3):41–44. [PubMed]
  • GOLDBLUM N, JASINSKA-KLINGBERG W, KLINGBERG MA, MARBERG K, STERK VV. The natural history of West Nile Fever. I. Clinical observations during an epidemic in Israel. Am J Hyg. 1956 Nov;64(3):259–269. [PubMed]
  • GOLDBLUM N, STERK VV, JASINSKAKLINGBERG W. The natural history of West Nile fever. II. Virological findings and the development of homologous and heterologous antibodies in West Nile infection in man. Am J Hyg. 1957 Nov;66(3):363–380. [PubMed]
  • SPIGLAND I, JASINSKA-KLINGBERG W, HOFSHI E, GOLDBLUM N. [Clinical and laboratory observations in an outbreak of West Nile fever in Israel in 1957]. Harefuah. 1958 Jun 1;54(11):275–281. [PubMed]
  • Katz G, Rannon L, Nili E, Danon YL. West Nile fever--occurrence in a new endemic site in the Negev. Isr J Med Sci. 1989 Jan;25(1):39–41. [PubMed]
  • Flatau E, Kohn D, Daher O, Varsano N. West Nile fever encephalitis. Isr J Med Sci. 1981 Nov;17(11):1057–1059. [PubMed]
  • Siegel-Itzkovich J. Twelve die of West Nile Virus in Israel. BMJ. 2000 Sep 23;321(7263):724–724. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shimoni Z, Niven MJ, Pitlick S, Bulvik S. Treatment of West Nile virus encephalitis with intravenous immunoglobulin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 Jul-Aug;7(4):759–759. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tsai TF, Popovici F, Cernescu C, Campbell GL, Nedelcu NI. West Nile encephalitis epidemic in southeastern Romania. Lancet. 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767–771. [PubMed]
  • Outbreak of West Nile-like viral encephalitis--New York, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999 Oct 1;48(38):845–849. [PubMed]
  • Update: West Nile-like viral encephalitis--New York, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999 Oct 8;48(39):890–892. [PubMed]
  • Le Guenno B, Bougermouh A, Azzam T, Bouakaz R. West Nile: a deadly virus? Lancet. 1996 Nov 9;348(9037):1315–1315. [PubMed]
  • Lvov DK, Butenko AM, Gromashevsky VL, Larichev VP, Gaidamovich SY, Vyshemirsky OI, Zhukov AN, Lazorenko VV, Salko VN, Kovtunov AI, et al. Isolation of two strains of West Nile virus during an outbreak in southern Russia, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000 Jul-Aug;6(4):373–376. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nir Y, Avivi A, Lasovski Y, Margalit J, Goldwasser R. Arbovirus activity in Israel. Isr J Med Sci. 1972 Oct;8(10):1695–1701. [PubMed]
  • Samina I, Margalit J, Peleg J. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes of the Negev, Israel. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1986;80(3):471–472. [PubMed]
  • Nir Y, Goldwasser R, Lasowski Y, Avivi A. Isolation of arboviruses from wild birds in Israel. Am J Epidemiol. 1967 Sep;86(2):372–378. [PubMed]
  • Giladi M, Metzkor-Cotter E, Martin DA, Siegman-Igra Y, Korczyn AD, Rosso R, Berger SA, Campbell GL, Lanciotti RS. West Nile encephalitis in Israel, 1999: the New York connection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 Jul-Aug;7(4):659–661. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lanciotti RS, Roehrig JT, Deubel V, Smith J, Parker M, Steele K, Crise B, Volpe KE, Crabtree MB, Scherret JH, et al. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science. 1999 Dec 17;286(5448):2333–2337. [PubMed]
  • Hindiyeh M, Shulman LM, Mendelson E, Weiss L, Grossman Z, Bin H. Isolation and characterization of West Nile virus from the blood of viremic patients during the 2000 outbreak in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 Jul-Aug;7(4):748–750. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Solomon T, Cardosa MJ. Emerging arboviral encephalitis. Newsworthy in the West but much more common in the East. BMJ. 2000 Dec 16;321(7275):1484–1485. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marra CM. Encephalitis in the 21 st century. Semin Neurol. 2000;20(3):323–327. [PubMed]
  • Sampson BA, Ambrosi C, Charlot A, Reiber K, Veress JF, Armbrustmacher V. The pathology of human West Nile Virus infection. Hum Pathol. 2000 May;31(5):527–531. [PubMed]
  • Shieh WJ, Guarner J, Layton M, Fine A, Miller J, Nash D, Campbell GL, Roehrig JT, Gubler DJ, Zaki SR. The role of pathology in an investigation of an outbreak of West Nile encephalitis in New York, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000 Jul-Aug;6(4):370–372. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Steele KE, Linn MJ, Schoepp RJ, Komar N, Geisbert TW, Manduca RM, Calle PP, Raphael BL, Clippinger TL, Larsen T, et al. Pathology of fatal West Nile virus infections in native and exotic birds during the 1999 outbreak in New York City, New York. Vet Pathol. 2000 May;37(3):208–224. [PubMed]
  • Rappole JH, Derrickson SR, Hubálek Z. Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000 Jul-Aug;6(4):319–328. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Emerging Infectious Diseases are provided here courtesy of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention