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Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 Sep-Oct; 5(5): 643–650.
PMCID: PMC2627720
West Nile fever--a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe.
Z. Hubálek and J. Halouzka
Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.
Z. Hubálek: zhubalek/at/
West Nile virus causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of human and equine disease in Europe (western Mediterranean and southern Russia in 1962-64, Belarus and Ukraine in the 1970s and 1980s, Romania in 1996-97, Czechland in 1997, and Italy in 1998). Environmental factors, including human activities, that enhance population densities of vector mosquitoes (heavy rains followed by floods, irrigation, higher than usual temperature, or formation of ecologic niches that enable mass breeding of mosquitoes) could increase the incidence of West Nile fever.
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