Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of iaiPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalIAI ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Infect Immun. 1986 March; 51(3): 859–864.
PMCID: PMC260977

Plasmodium berghei sporozoite invasion is blocked in vitro by sporozoite-immobilizing antibodies.


A monoclonal antibody directed against the circumsporozoite protein on the surface of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites inhibited sporozoite motility in vitro. These immobilized sporozoites could adhere to but not invade target cultured cells. Other sporozoite-immobilizing agents also inhibited sporozoite invasion into cultured cells and did not prevent sporozoite adherence. These results indicate that sporozoite invasiveness is associated with sporozoite motility. Thus, the immobilizing effect of this antibody could explain its functional activity against sporozoite invasion in vivo.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Aikawa M, Schwartz A, Uni S, Nussenzweig R, Hollingdale M. Ultrastructure of in vitro cultured exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium berghei in a hepatoma cell line. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1984 Sep;33(5):792–799. [PubMed]
  • Ballou WR, Rothbard J, Wirtz RA, Gordon DM, Williams JS, Gore RW, Schneider I, Hollingdale MR, Beaudoin RL, Maloy WL, et al. Immunogenicity of synthetic peptides from circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum. Science. 1985 May 24;228(4702):996–999. [PubMed]
  • Clyde DF. Immunization of man against falciparum and vivax malaria by use of attenuated sporozoites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1975 May;24(3):397–401. [PubMed]
  • Clyde DF, Most H, McCarthy VC, Vanderberg JP. Immunization of man against sporozite-induced falciparum malaria. Am J Med Sci. 1973 Sep;266(3):169–177. [PubMed]
  • Collins WE, Contacos PG. Immunization of monkeys against Plasmodium cynomolgi by X-irradiated sporozoites. Nat New Biol. 1972 Apr 12;236(67):176–177. [PubMed]
  • Dame JB, Williams JL, McCutchan TF, Weber JL, Wirtz RA, Hockmeyer WT, Maloy WL, Haynes JD, Schneider I, Roberts D, et al. Structure of the gene encoding the immunodominant surface antigen on the sporozoite of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Science. 1984 Aug 10;225(4662):593–599. [PubMed]
  • Danforth HD, Aikawa M, Cochrane AH, Nussenzweig RS. Sporozoites of mammalian malaria: attachment to, interiorization and fate within macrophages. J Protozool. 1980 May;27(2):193–202. [PubMed]
  • Enea V, Ellis J, Zavala F, Arnot DE, Asavanich A, Masuda A, Quakyi I, Nussenzweig RS. DNA cloning of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite gene: amino acid sequence of repetitive epitope. Science. 1984 Aug 10;225(4662):628–630. [PubMed]
  • Foley DA, Vanderberg JP. Plasmodium berghei: transmission by intraperitoneal inoculation of immature exoerythrocytic schizonts from rats into rats, mice, and hamsters. Exp Parasitol. 1977 Oct;43(1):69–81. [PubMed]
  • Gwadz RW, Cochrane AH, Nussenzweig V, Nussenzweig RS. Preliminary studies on vaccination of rhesus monkeys with irradiated sporozoites of Plasmodium knowlesi and characterization of surface antigens of these parasites. Bull World Health Organ. 1979;57 (Suppl 1):165–173. [PubMed]
  • Hollingdale MR, Leef JL, McCullough M, Beaudoin RL. In vitro cultivation of the exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium berghei from sporozoites. Science. 1981 Aug 28;213(4511):1021–1022. [PubMed]
  • Hollingdale MR, Leland P, Leef JL, Schwartz AL. Entry of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites into cultured cells, and their transformation into trophozoites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1983 Jul;32(4):685–690. [PubMed]
  • Hollingdale MR, Zavala F, Nussenzweig RS, Nussenzweig V. Antibodies to the protective antigen of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites prevent entry into cultured cells. J Immunol. 1982 Apr;128(4):1929–1930. [PubMed]
  • Jensen JB, Edgar SA. Possible secretory function of the rhoptries of Eimeria magna during penetration of cultured cells. J Parasitol. 1976 Dec;62(6):988–992. [PubMed]
  • Köhler G, Milstein C. Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature. 1975 Aug 7;256(5517):495–497. [PubMed]
  • Leland P, Sigler CI, Danforth HD, Hollingdale MR. Inhibition of Plasmodium berghei sporozoite invasion of cultured hepatoma cells. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1984;78(5):639–640. [PubMed]
  • Meis JF, Verhave JP, Jap PH, Meuwissen JH. An ultrastructural study on the role of Kupffer cells in the process of infection by Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in rats. Parasitology. 1983 Apr;86(Pt 2):231–242. [PubMed]
  • Meuwissen JH, Golenser J, Verhave JP. Development of effective antisporozoite immunity by natural bites of Plasmodium-berghei-infected mosquitoes in rats under prophylactic treatment with various drug regimens. Isr J Med Sci. 1978 May;14(5):601–605. [PubMed]
  • Nardin EH, Nussenzweig RS. Stage-specific antigens on the surface membrane of sporozoites of malaria parasites. Nature. 1978 Jul 6;274(5666):55–57. [PubMed]
  • Potocnjak P, Yoshida N, Nussenzweig RS, Nussenzweig V. Monovalent fragments (Fab) of monoclonal antibodies to a sporozoite surface antigen (Pb44) protect mice against malarial infection. J Exp Med. 1980 Jun 1;151(6):1504–1513. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rieckmann KH, Beaudoin RL, Cassells JS, Sell KW. Use of attenuated sporozoites in the immunization of human volunteers against falciparum malaria. Bull World Health Organ. 1979;57 (Suppl 1):261–265. [PubMed]
  • Rieckmann KH, Carson PE, Beaudoin RL, Cassells JS, Sell KW. Letter: Sporozoite induced immunity in man against an Ethiopian strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1974;68(3):258–259. [PubMed]
  • Russell DG. Host cell invasion by Apicomplexa: an expression of the parasite's contractile system? Parasitology. 1983 Oct;87(Pt 2):199–209. [PubMed]
  • Schwartz AL, Fridovich SE, Knowles BB, Lodish HF. Characterization of the asialoglycoprotein receptor in a continuous hepatoma line. J Biol Chem. 1981 Sep 10;256(17):8878–8881. [PubMed]
  • Shin SC, Vanderberg JP, Terzakis JA. Direct infection of hepatocytes by sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei. J Protozool. 1982 Aug;29(3):448–454. [PubMed]
  • Vanderberg JP. Inactivity of rodent malaria anti-sporozoite antibodies against exoerythrocytic forms. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1973 Sep;22(5):573–577. [PubMed]
  • Vanderberg JP. Studies on the motility of Plasmodium sporozoites. J Protozool. 1974 Oct;21(4):527–537. [PubMed]
  • Vanderberg JP. Plasmodium berghei: quantitation of sporozoites injected by mosquitoes feeding on a rodent host. Exp Parasitol. 1977 Jun;42(1):169–181. [PubMed]
  • Vanderberg J, Nussenzweig R, Most H. Protective immunity produced by the injection of x-irradiated sporozoites of Plasmodium berghei. V. In vitro effects of immune serum on sporozoites. Mil Med. 1969 Sep;134(10):1183–1190. [PubMed]
  • Werk R, Bommer W. Toxoplasma gondii: membrane properties of active energy-dependent invasion of host cells. Tropenmed Parasitol. 1980 Dec;31(4):417–420. [PubMed]
  • Yoshida N, Nussenzweig RS, Potocnjak P, Nussenzweig V, Aikawa M. Hybridoma produces protective antibodies directed against the sporozoite stage of malaria parasite. Science. 1980 Jan 4;207(4426):71–73. [PubMed]
  • Young JF, Hockmeyer WT, Gross M, Ballou WR, Wirtz RA, Trosper JH, Beaudoin RL, Hollingdale MR, Miller LH, Diggs CL, et al. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins in Escherichia coli for potential use in a human malaria vaccine. Science. 1985 May 24;228(4702):958–962. [PubMed]
  • Zavala F, Cochrane AH, Nardin EH, Nussenzweig RS, Nussenzweig V. Circumsporozoite proteins of malaria parasites contain a single immunodominant region with two or more identical epitopes. J Exp Med. 1983 Jun 1;157(6):1947–1957. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zavala F, Hollingdale MR, Schwartz AL, Nussenzweig RS, Nussenzweig V. Immunoradiometric assay to measure the in vitro penetration of sporozoites of malaria parasites into hepatoma cells. J Immunol. 1985 Feb;134(2):1202–1205. [PubMed]
  • Zavala F, Tam JP, Hollingdale MR, Cochrane AH, Quakyi I, Nussenzweig RS, Nussenzweig V. Rationale for development of a synthetic vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Science. 1985 Jun 21;228(4706):1436–1440. [PubMed]

Articles from Infection and Immunity are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)