Fourteen percent of the young MSM reported receiving a positive HIV diagnosis; 40.1% reported having multiple anal sex partners in the past 3 months and 44.4% reported having had any unprotected anal intercourse in the past year. Forty two percent of participants reported living with parents or family, which as expected decreased with increasing age (OR = .73, p < 0.001). Among participants with a mother/step-mother, 82.7% reported that their mother definitely knew their sexual orientation (77.5% of the overall study population), and most of these mothers were described as accepting (53.4%) or tolerant (30.3%). Fewer fathers definitely knew their sons' sexual orientation (Chi square = 20.10, p< 0.01); among participants with a father/step-father, 70.4% reported that their father definitely knew their sexual orientation (57.6% of the overall study population), with the majority of these fathers accepting (48.9%) or tolerant (25.3%). Mothers in comparison to fathers were more likely to be described as accepting or tolerant of their sons' sexual orientation (p<0.001).
Controlling for age, significantly more White youth disclosed their sexual orientation to their mothers relative to some other ethnic groups (Black OR = 0.36; Latino OR = 0.29; ps < 0.05; not significant for Asian and Other) and their fathers (Black OR = 0.16; Latino OR = 0.20; Other OR = 0.18 p < 0.01; not significant for Asian). However, in all racial/ethnic groups disclosure was >50% to mothers and fathers. Controlling for age, there were no statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in mothers' acceptance among disclosing youth (p = 0.52), but White participants reported higher levels of acceptance by fathers (Chi square = 3.80, p = 0.05).
In a principal components factor analysis, family support, loneliness, and cohesion formed a single latent factor that explained 80% of the variance in the scales; higher scores indicative of positive family connectedness. In a logistic regression model, family connectedness as measured by our standardized family factor significantly decreased the odds of an HV positive status, controlling for age and race/ethnicity (). After controlling for age, race/ethnicity and HIV serostatus, family connectedness was not significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors such as unprotected anal intercourse in the past year or multiple anal sex partners in the past 3 months (). Neither age nor disclosure was significantly associated family connectedness as measured by our standardized factor (p>0.05); whereas living at home was positively correlated with family connectedness (p=0.014) – . See for a detailed decription of correlations between some of our demographic variables, scaled measures, independent and dependent variables.
Logistic Regression Results for Association between Family Factor, HIV Status and Sexual Risk Behaviors – Controlling for Age and Race/Ethnicity
Correlation Matirx for Demographics, Scaled Measures, Independent and Dependent Variables