PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of iaiPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalIAI ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
 
Infect Immun. 1988 October; 56(10): 2749–2752.
PMCID: PMC259639

Plasminogen activator/coagulase gene of Yersinia pestis is responsible for degradation of plasmid-encoded outer membrane proteins.

Abstract

The related family of virulence plasmids found in the three major pathogens of the genus Yersinia all have the ability to encode a set of outer membrane proteins. In Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, these proteins are major constituents of the outer membrane when their synthesis is fully induced. In contrast, they have been difficult to detect in Y. pestis. It has recently been established that Y. pestis does synthesize these proteins, but that they are rapidly degraded due to some activity determined by the 9.5-kilobase plasmid commonly found in Y. pestis strains. We show that mutations in the pla gene of this plasmid, which encodes both the plasminogen activator and coagulase activities, blocked this degradation. A cloned 1.4-kilobase DNA fragment carrying pla was also sufficient to cause degradation in the absence of the 9.5-kilobase plasmid.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (785K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Beesley ED, Brubaker RR, Janssen WA, Surgalla MJ. Pesticins. 3. Expression of coagulase and mechanism of fibrinolysis. J Bacteriol. 1967 Jul;94(1):19–26. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • BEN-GURION R, HERTMAN I. Bacteriocin-like material produced by Pasteurella pestis. J Gen Microbiol. 1958 Oct;19(2):289–297. [PubMed]
  • Ben-Gurion R, Shafferman A. Essential virulence determinants of different Yersinia species are carried on a common plasmid. Plasmid. 1981 Mar;5(2):183–187. [PubMed]
  • Bölin I, Forsberg A, Norlander L, Skurnik M, Wolf-Watz H. Identification and mapping of the temperature-inducible, plasmid-encoded proteins of Yersinia spp. Infect Immun. 1988 Feb;56(2):343–348. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bölin I, Portnoy DA, Wolf-Watz H. Expression of the temperature-inducible outer membrane proteins of yersiniae. Infect Immun. 1985 Apr;48(1):234–240. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brubaker RR, Beesley ED, Surgalla MJ. Pasteurella pestis: Role of Pesticin I and Iron in Experimental Plague. Science. 1965 Jul 23;149(3682):422–424. [PubMed]
  • Brubaker RR, Sample AK, Yu DZ, Zahorchak RJ, Hu PC, Fowler JM. Proteolysis of V antigen from Yersinia pestis. Microb Pathog. 1987 Jan;2(1):49–62. [PubMed]
  • BRUBAKER RR, SURGALLA MJ. Pesticins. I. Pesticinbacterium interrelationships, and environmental factors influencing activity. J Bacteriol. 1961 Dec;82:940–949. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cornelis G, Laroche Y, Balligand G, Sory MP, Wauters G. Yersinia enterocolitica, a primary model for bacterial invasiveness. Rev Infect Dis. 1987 Jan-Feb;9(1):64–87. [PubMed]
  • Ferber DM, Brubaker RR. Plasmids in Yersinia pestis. Infect Immun. 1981 Feb;31(2):839–841. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gemski P, Lazere JR, Casey T, Wohlhieter JA. Presence of a virulence-associated plasmid in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Infect Immun. 1980 Jun;28(3):1044–1047. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goguen JD, Yother J, Straley SC. Genetic analysis of the low calcium response in Yersinia pestis mu d1(Ap lac) insertion mutants. J Bacteriol. 1984 Dec;160(3):842–848. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Heesemann J, Algermissen B, Laufs R. Genetically manipulated virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect Immun. 1984 Oct;46(1):105–110. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • HIGUCHI K, SMITH JL. Studies on the nutrition and physiology of Pasteurella pestis. VI. A differential plating medium for the estimation of the mutation rate to avirulence. J Bacteriol. 1961 Apr;81:605–608. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hu PC, Brubaker RR. Characterization of pesticin. Separation of antibacterial activities. J Biol Chem. 1974 Aug 10;249(15):4749–4753. [PubMed]
  • Morrissey JH. Silver stain for proteins in polyacrylamide gels: a modified procedure with enhanced uniform sensitivity. Anal Biochem. 1981 Nov 1;117(2):307–310. [PubMed]
  • Portnoy DA, Wolf-Watz H, Bolin I, Beeder AB, Falkow S. Characterization of common virulence plasmids in Yersinia species and their role in the expression of outer membrane proteins. Infect Immun. 1984 Jan;43(1):108–114. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sample AK, Fowler JM, Brubaker RR. Modulation of the low-calcium response in Yersinia pestis via plasmid-plasmid interaction. Microb Pathog. 1987 Jun;2(6):443–453. [PubMed]
  • Skurnik M. Expression of antigens encoded by the virulence plasmid of Yersinia enterocolitica under different growth conditions. Infect Immun. 1985 Jan;47(1):183–190. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sodeinde OA, Goguen JD. Genetic analysis of the 9.5-kilobase virulence plasmid of Yersinia pestis. Infect Immun. 1988 Oct;56(10):2743–2748. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Straley SC, Bowmer WS. Virulence genes regulated at the transcriptional level by Ca2+ in Yersinia pestis include structural genes for outer membrane proteins. Infect Immun. 1986 Feb;51(2):445–454. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Straley SC, Brubaker RR. Cytoplasmic and membrane proteins of yersiniae cultivated under conditions simulating mammalian intracellular environment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Feb;78(2):1224–1228. [PubMed]
  • Zink DL, Feeley JC, Wells JG, Vanderzant C, Vickery JC, Roof WD, O'Donovan GA. Plasmid-mediated tissue invasiveness in Yersinia enterocolitica. Nature. 1980 Jan 10;283(5743):224–226. [PubMed]

Articles from Infection and Immunity are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)