PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of yjbmLink to Publisher's site
 
Yale J Biol Med. 1976 May; 49(2): 175–195.
PMCID: PMC2595276

Causation and Disease: The Henle-Koch Postulates Revisited 1

Abstract

The Henle-Koch postulates are reviewed in terms of their full validity in Koch's day and in light of subsequent developments. The changing guidelines developed for viral diseases, for viruses in relation to cancer and to chronic central nervous system infection, and for causative agents in chronic diseases are discussed chronologically. A set of guidelines for both acute infectious and chronic diseases is presented. The need for recognizing the role of the host and the spectrum of host responses, for sound biologic sense in evaluating causal roles of agents in disease, and for flexibility in adapting our guidelines to new knowledge are emphasized.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Klein G. The Epstein-Barr virus and neoplasia. N Engl J Med. 1975 Dec 25;293(26):1353–1357. [PubMed]
  • Evans AS. Pettenkofer revisited: the life and contributions of Max von Pettenkofer (1818-1901). Yale J Biol Med. 1973 Jun;46(3):161–176. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shope RE. SWINE INFLUENZA : III. FILTRATION EXPERIMENTS AND ETIOLOGY. J Exp Med. 1931 Jul 31;54(3):373–385. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • HUEBNER RJ. Criteria for etiologic association of prevalent viruses with prevalent diseases; the virologist's dilemma. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1957 Apr 19;67(8):430–438. [PubMed]
  • FOX JP, GELFAND HM, LEBLANC DR, CONWELL DP. Studies on the development of natural immunity to poliomyelitis in Louisiana. I. Over-all plan, methods and observations as to patterns of seroimmunity in the study group. Am J Hyg. 1957 May;65(3):344–366. [PubMed]
  • Fox JP, Hall CE, Cooney MK, Luce RE, Kronmal RA. The Seattle virus watch. II. Objectives, study population and its observation, data processing and summary of illnesses. Am J Epidemiol. 1972 Oct;96(4):270–285. [PubMed]
  • Evans AS. Clinical syndromes in adults caused by respiratory infection. Med Clin North Am. 1967 May;51(3):803–818. [PubMed]
  • BLUMBERG BS, ALTER HJ, VISNICH S. A "NEW" ANTIGEN IN LEUKEMIA SERA. JAMA. 1965 Feb 15;191:541–546. [PubMed]
  • EPSTEIN MA, ACHONG BG, BARR YM. VIRUS PARTICLES IN CULTURED LYMPHOBLASTS FROM BURKITT'S LYMPHOMA. Lancet. 1964 Mar 28;1(7335):702–703. [PubMed]
  • BURKITT D. A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children. Br J Surg. 1958 Nov;46(197):218–223. [PubMed]
  • Henle G, Henle W. Immunofluorescence in cells derived from Burkitt's lymphoma. J Bacteriol. 1966 Mar;91(3):1248–1256. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond J. Infectious hepatitis. Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological, and immunological types of infection. JAMA. 1967 May 1;200(5):365–373. [PubMed]
  • Krugman S, Giles JP. Viral hepatitis. New light on an old disease. JAMA. 1970 May 11;212(6):1019–1029. [PubMed]
  • Le Bouvier GL. The heterogeneity of Australia antigen. J Infect Dis. 1971 Jun;123(6):671–675. [PubMed]
  • Bancroft WH, Mundon FK, Russell PK. Detection of additional antigenic determinants of hepatitis B antigen. J Immunol. 1972 Oct;109(4):842–848. [PubMed]
  • Niederman JC, McCollum RW, Henle G, Henle W. Infectious mononucleosis. Clinical manifestations in relation to EB virus antibodies. JAMA. 1968 Jan 15;203(3):205–209. [PubMed]
  • Evans AS, Niederman JC, McCollum RW. Seroepidemiologic studies of infectious mononucleosis with EB virus. N Engl J Med. 1968 Nov 21;279(21):1121–1127. [PubMed]
  • Sawyer RN, Evans AS, Niederman JC, McCollum RW. Prospective studies of a group of Yale University freshmen. I. Occurrence of infectious mononucleosis. J Infect Dis. 1971 Mar;123(3):263–270. [PubMed]
  • Hallee TJ, Evans AS, Niederman JC, Brooks CM, Voegtly j H. Infectious mononucleosis at the United States Military Academy. A prospective study of a single class over four years. Yale J Biol Med. 1974 Sep;47(3):182–195. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klemola E, Von Essen R, Henle G, Henle W. Infectious-mononucleosis-like disease with negative heterophil agglutination test. Clinical features in relation to Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus antibodies. J Infect Dis. 1970 Jun;121(6):608–614. [PubMed]
  • Gajdusek DC. Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Experimental models of noninflammatory degenerative slow virus disease of the central nervous system. Ann Clin Res. 1973 Oct;5(5):254–261. [PubMed]
  • Narayan O, Penney JB, Jr, Johnson RT, Herndon RM, Weiner LP. Etiology of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Identification of papovavirus. N Engl J Med. 1973 Dec 13;289(24):1278–1282. [PubMed]
  • Feorino PM, Humphrey D. Mononucleosis-associated subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Lancet. 1975 Sep 20;2(7934):530–532. [PubMed]
  • Weil ML, Itabashi H, Cremer NE, Oshiro L, Lennette EH, Carnay L. Chronic progressive panencephalitis due to rubella virus simulating subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. N Engl J Med. 1975 May 8;292(19):994–998. [PubMed]
  • Miller G. The oncogenicity of Epstein-Barr virus. J Infect Dis. 1974 Aug;130(2):187–205. [PubMed]
  • de Thé G, Geser A. A prospective sero-epidemiological study to investigate the role of EBV in Burkitt's lymphoma. Bibl Haematol. 1973;39:448–456. [PubMed]
  • de Schryver A, Friberg S, Jr, Klein G, Henle W, Henle G, De-Thé G, Clifford P, Ho HC. Epstein-Barr virus-associated antibody patterns in carcinoma of the post-nasal space. Clin Exp Immunol. 1969 Nov;5(5):443–459. [PubMed]
  • Epstein MA, Hunt RD, Rabin H. Pilot experiments with EB virus in owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus). I Reticuloproliferative disease in an inoculated animal. Int J Cancer. 1973 Sep 15;12(2):309–318. [PubMed]
  • Kufe D, Magrath IT, Ziegler JL, Spiegelman S. Burkitt's tumors contain particles encapsulating RNA-instructed DNA polymerase and high molecular weight virus-related RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1973 Mar;70(3):737–741. [PubMed]
  • Kieff E, Levine J. Homology between Burkitt herpes viral DNA and DNA in continuous lymphoblastoid cells from patients with infectious mononucleosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Feb;71(2):355–358. [PubMed]
  • Adam E, Rawls WE, Melnick JL. The association of herpesvirus type 2 infection and cervical cancer. Prev Med. 1974 Mar;3(1):122–141. [PubMed]
  • Stewart GT. Limitations of the germ theory. Lancet. 1968 May 18;1(7551):1077–1081. [PubMed]
  • WYNDER EL, GRAHAM EA. Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchiogenic carcinoma; a study of 684 proved cases. J Am Med Assoc. 1950 May 27;143(4):329–336. [PubMed]
  • Thomas HE, Jr, Kannel WB, Dawber TR, McNamara PM. Cholesterol-phospholipid ratio in the prediction of coronary heart disease. The Framingham study. N Engl J Med. 1966 Mar 31;274(13):701–705. [PubMed]
  • LEVIN ML. The occurrence of lung cancer in man. Acta Unio Int Contra Cancrum. 1953;9(3):531–541. [PubMed]
  • Lilienfeld AM. Epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious disease: some comparisons. Am J Epidemiol. 1973 Mar;97(3):135–147. [PubMed]

Articles from The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine are provided here courtesy of Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine