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Yale J Biol Med. 1988 Mar-Apr; 61(2): 115–122.
PMCID: PMC2590279

Characteristics of freebase cocaine psychosis.


Psychosis was present in 29 percent of cocaine-disordered patients hospitalized in 1985 during an epidemic of freebase cocaine abuse in the Bahamas. Record reviews revealed that a variety of psychotic phenomenologic patterns were present. Prior major mental disorders and increased dosage of cocaine were more common among psychotic than non-psychotic patients. Violent behavior was common among cocaine patients, especially those with psychosis. We conclude that freebase cocaine psychosis is neither rare nor benign.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Jeri FR, Sanchez CC, del Pozo T, Fernandez M, Carbajal C. Further experience with the syndromes produced by coca paste smoking. Bull Narc. 1978 Jul-Sep;30(3):1–11. [PubMed]
  • Siegel RK. Cocaine smoking. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1982 Oct-Dec;14(4):271–359. [PubMed]
  • Manschreck TC, Allen DF, Neville M. Freebase psychosis: cases from a Bahamian epidemic of cocaine abuse. Compr Psychiatry. 1987 Nov-Dec;28(6):555–564. [PubMed]
  • Jekel JF, Allen DF, Podlewski H, Clarke N, Dean-Patterson S, Cartwright P. Epidemic free-base cocaine abuse. Case study from the Bahamas. Lancet. 1986 Mar 1;1(8479):459–462. [PubMed]
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