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OBJECTIVE: To review and critique the research literature on training pediatric residents to address tobacco. METHODS: A Medline search was conducted to identify studies that specifically addressed pediatric residency training on tobacco, and Google Scholar was used to identify articles in which the referenced study was cited. RESULTS: Eight studies that specifically addressed training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco were identified. Most used active as well as passive approaches to training. Baseline data underscored the importance of training future pediatricians to address tobacco. Although the studies differed in size, scope and rigor, they showed that training pediatric residents to address tobacco enhanced residents' ability and likelihood to address tobacco. CONCLUSION: The review documents the importance and value of training pediatric residents to address tobacco, provides suggestions for future research and underscores the need to incorporate training on tobacco into pediatric residency training curriculum.