This research (supported by NIH grants EY13018 and DK 07665, and Research to Prevent Blindness) was part of the Carotenoids and Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS), an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative. We thank the National Eye Institute for funding the CAREDS, and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, for funding the WHI program.
We are grateful to the Scientific Advisory Board (Natalie Kurinji, PhD, National Eye Institute; Sheila West, PhD (Chair); Neil Bressler, MD, Johns Hopkins University; Anne Lindblad, PhD, The EMMES Corporation; and Susan Mayne, PhD, Yale University) for their useful discussions and critical reading of the manuscript. We also thank the entire group of CAREDS Investigators: (Catherine Allen, PhD, Barbara Blodi, MD, Matthew Davis, MD, Larry Hubbard, MAT, Tara LaRowe, PhD, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Karen Gehrs, MD, Robert Wallace, MD, University of Iowa Hospital & Clinics, Iowa City, IA; Elizabeth Johnson, PhD, Tufts University USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Boston, MA; Michael Klein, MD, OHSU/Casey Eye Institute, Portland, OR; Cheryl Ritenbaugh, PhD, MPH, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; D Max Snodderly, PhD, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA; Amy Millen, PhD, State University of New York-Buffalo, NY; Niyati Parekh, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NY; Bill Wooten, PhD, Brown University, Providence, RI; and the CAREDS staff in Portland (Paula Smith, Susan K. Nolte, Debora Vahrenwald), Iowa City (Kelly O'Berry, Heather Stockman, Steven Wallace, Lindsey Fuhrmeister), Madison (Jane Armstrong, Michael Neider, Hugh Wabers, Janet Rowley, Tanya Judge, Lisa Oxton, Rickie Voland, Gail Ostrowski, Scott Burfield, Julie Ewing, Tracy Perkins) for their dedicated work.
We would also like to thank and acknowledge the Women's Health Initiative investigators, staff, and participants for their time and effort in obtaining the WHI data that were presented in this manuscript. Specifically, we would like to thank:
Program Office: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland) Barbara Alving, Jacques Rossouw, Shari Ludlam, Linda Pottern, Joan McGowan, Leslie Ford, and Nancy Geller.
Clinical Coordinating Center: (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA) Ross Prentice, Garnet Anderson, Andrea LaCroix, Charles L. Kooperberg, Ruth E. Patterson, Anne McTiernan; (Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC) Sally Shumaker; (Medical Research Labs, Highland Heights, KY) Evan Stein; (University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA) Steven Cummings.
Clinical Centers: (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY) Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller; (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX) Jennifer Hays; (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA) JoAnn Manson; (Brown University, Providence, RI) Annlouise R. Assaf; (Emory University, Atlanta, GA) Lawrence Phillips; (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA) Shirley Beresford; (George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC) Judith Hsia; (Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor- UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA) Rowan Chlebowski; (Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, OR) Evelyn Whitlock; (Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, CA) Bette Caan; (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI) Jane Morley Kotchen; (MedStar Research Institute/Howard University, Washington, DC) Barbara V. Howard; (Northwestern University, Chicago/Evanston, IL) Linda Van Horn; (Rush Medical Center, Chicago, IL) Henry Black; (Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford, CA) Marcia L. Stefanick; (State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY) Dorothy Lane; (The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH) Rebecca Jackson; (University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL) Cora E. Lewis; (University of Arizona, Tucson/Phoenix, AZ) Tamsen Bassford; (University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY) Jean Wactawski-Wende; (University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA) John Robbins; (University of California at Irvine, CA) F. Allan Hubbell; (University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA) Howard Judd; (University of California at San Diego, LaJolla/Chula Vista, CA) Robert D. Langer; (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH) Margery Gass; (University of Florida, Gainesville/Jacksonville, FL) Marian Limacher; (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI) David Curb; (University of Iowa, Iowa City/Davenport, IA) Robert Wallace; (University of Massachusetts/Fallon Clinic, Worcester, MA) Judith Ockene; (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ) Norman Lasser; (University of Miami, Miami, FL) Mary Jo O'Sullivan; (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN) Karen Margolis; (University of Nevada, Reno, NV) Robert Brunner; (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC) Gerardo Heiss; (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA) Lewis Kuller; (University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN) Karen C. Johnson; (University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX) Robert Brzyski; (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI) Gloria E. Sarto; (Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC) Denise Bonds; (Wayne State University School of Medicine/Hutzel Hospital, Detroit, MI) Susan Hendrix.