A summary of demographic information by smoking status, including age, minority status, marital status, and socioeconomic status can be found in . also contains mean PTSD symptom totals and B, C, and D subset scores as well as smoking characteristics for current smokers, such as pack years smoked, age began smoking, and FTND scores.
Demographic Information by Group
Thirty-two percent (n=29) were current smokers and 68% (n
=61) were non-smokers. Of the 61 non-smokers, 24 (27% of the original sample) had a lifetime history of smoking, and 37 (41% of the original sample) had never smoked. Among current smokers, the average age of smoking onset was 15.86 (SD
= 2.91) years, and average pack years smoked was 8.89 (SD
= 9.58). Average FTND scores were relatively low at M
= 4.41 (SD
= 2.17), and 52 percent of current smokers reported FTND scores in the low to very low range (≤ 4, (Heatherton et al., 1991
). The number of times quit in the past was a mean of 5.13 (SD
= 6.87). Fifty percent were heavy smokers who reported smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes per day. Current smokers were significantly younger than nonsmokers and had significantly less education.
Of the 90 participants, 88 subjects identified their primary, or index, trauma as a combat-related trauma, and 2 subjects (one current smoker, one non-smoker) identified their trauma as a non-combat, military-related trauma. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers on the number of trauma categories endorsed on the TLEQ, X2 (1, N = 90) = 0.18, p=.29. Smokers reported a mean number of traumatic events of 2.52 (SD=1.30), and non-smokers reported a mean number of traumatic events of 2.21 (SD= 1.42).
Results suggested that that severity of PTSD symptoms were related to current smoking status. Current smokers had significantly higher PTSD C-cluster symptoms on both the CAPS, F (1, 89) = 6.35, p = .01, and the DTS, F (1, 89) = 5.44, p = .02. In analysis of PTSD DTS C-cluster symptoms, current smokers had significantly higher numbing symptoms, but there were no detected differences in the C-cluster avoidance symptoms (see ). Smokers also reported higher total BDI scores, F (1, 88) = 5.14, p = .03. In a multivariate logistic regression entering age, depression, and PTSD (CAPS) symptom clusters, only age was uniquely associated with current smoking status, OR = .923 (95% CI; .868-.981), p = .01. This may be a function of shared variance between depression and PTSD C-cluster symptoms (r = .38, p = .0003). In a separate logistic regression model controlling for age and CAPS C-cluster symptoms, both age, OR = .921 (95% CI; .866-.979), p = .008, and CAPS C-cluster symptoms, OR = 1.072 (95% CI; 1.002–1.147), p = .04, were associated with smoking. Similarly, in a separate model controlling for age and depression, age was associated with current smoking, OR = .921 (95% CI; .867-.978), p = .008, and there was a trend for depression being associated with current smoking, OR = 1.044 (95% CI; .998–1.092), p = .058.
One-half (50%) of the current smokers were in the contemplative phase of stopping smoking (intending to quit in the next 6 months but not the next 30 days), while 29% of current smokers were in the pre-contemplative phase (with no immediate intention to stop smoking in the next 6 months), and only 21% were in the preparation phase (considering quitting in the next month with a report of at least one quit attempt in the past year). Stage of change was unrelated to PTSD severity, OR = 1.012 (95% CI; .967-1.059), p = .61. Smoking severity as measured by the FTND was associated with being in an earlier stage of change, F (2,25) = 3.56, p = .05. Smokers with higher levelsof nicotine dependence were less likely to be in a stage of preparation for quitting smoking, OR = .517 (95% CI; .277-.965), p = .04. Among current smokers, a higher number of quit attempts was correlated with higher CAPS total scores (r = .48, p = .02), higher DTS total scores (r = .45, p = .03), and higher DTS C-cluster symptoms (r = .44, p = .03).