Six monoclonal antibodies directed against respiratory syncytial virus proteins were produced. Each was characterized by immunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescence. One was directed against the nucleocapsid protein. NP 44, two were directed against a 37,000-dalton protein, two were directed against the major envelope glycoprotein, GP 90, and one was directed against the 70,000-dalton envelope protein, VP 70. Indirect immunofluorescence stain patterns of infected HEp-2 cells defined GP 90 and VP 70 as viral proteins expressed on the cell surface, whereas NP 44 and the 37,000-dalton protein were detected as intracytoplasmic inclusions. One of the anti-GP 90 antibodies neutralized virus only in the presence of complement but did not inhibit cell-cell fusion. The anti-VP 70 antibody neutralized virus without complement and inhibited cell-cell fusion of previously infected HEp-2 cells, thus identifying VP 70 as the fusion protein.