Conseils de recherche
Les critères de recherche 


Logo of bmjThe BMJ
BMJ. 1995 October 21; 311(7012): 1047–1052.
PMCID: PMC2551361

Anticonvulsant drugs for management of pain: a systematic review.


OBJECTIVE--To determine effectiveness and adverse effects of anticonvulsant drugs in management of pain. DESIGN--Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of anticonvulsants for acute, chronic, or cancer pain identified by using Medline, by hand searching, by searching reference lists, and by contacting investigators. SUBJECTS--Between 1966 and February 1994, 37 reports were found; 20 reports, of four anticonvulsants, were eligible. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Numbers needed to treat were calculated for effectiveness, adverse effects, and drug related withdrawal from study. RESULTS--The only placebo controlled study in acute pain found no analgesic effect of sodium valproate. For treating trigeminal neuralgia, carbamazepine had a combined number needed to treat of 2.6 for effectiveness, 3.4 for adverse effects, and 24 for severe effects (withdrawal from study). For treating diabetic neuropathy, anticonvulsants had a combined number needed to treat of 2.5 for effectiveness, 3.1 for adverse effects, and 20 for severe effects. For migraine prophylaxis, anticonvulsants had a combined number needed to treat of 1.6 for effectiveness, 2.4 for adverse effects, and 39 for severe effects. Phenytoin had no effect on the irritable bowel syndrome, and carbamazepine had little effect on pain after stroke. Clonazepam was effective in one study for temporomandibular joint dysfunction. No study compared one anticonvulsant with another. CONCLUSIONS--Anticonvulsants were effective for trigeminal neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy and for migraine prophylaxis. Minor adverse effects occurred as often as benefit.

Texte intégral

Une copie numérisée de la version imprimée originale du texte intégral est accessible. Obtenir une copie imprimable (en format PDF) de article intégral (1.2M), ou bien cliquez sur les images des pages ci-dessous pour parcourir l'article page par page. Des liens vers PubMed existent également pour Bibliographie sélective.

Bibliographie sélective

Ces références figurent dans PubMed. Il se peut que la bibliographie de l'article soit plus exhaustive.
  • Rappaport ZH, Devor M. Trigeminal neuralgia: the role of self-sustaining discharge in the trigeminal ganglion. Pain. 1994 Feb;56(2):127–138. [PubMed]
  • Cook RJ, Sackett DL. The number needed to treat: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect. BMJ. 1995 Feb 18;310(6977):452–454. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arieff AJ, Wetzel N. Tegretol in the treatment of neuralgias. Dis Nerv Syst. 1967 Dec;28(12):820–823. [PubMed]
  • Farago F. Trigeminal neuralgia: its treatment with two new carbamazepine analogues. Eur Neurol. 1987;26(2):73–83. [PubMed]
  • Fromm GH, Terrence CF, Chattha AS. Baclofen in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: double-blind study and long-term follow-up. Ann Neurol. 1984 Mar;15(3):240–244. [PubMed]
  • Goncikowska M. Próba leczenia bólu głowy Hortona małymi dawkami pilokarpiny i karbamazepina. Wiad Lek. 1984 Jul 15;37(14):1093–1095. [PubMed]
  • Hatta V, Saxena A, Kaul HL. Phenytoin reduces suxamethonium-induced myalgia. Anaesthesia. 1992 Aug;47(8):664–667. [PubMed]
  • Holmes B, Brogden RN, Heel RC, Speight TM, Avery GS. Flunarizine. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. Drugs. 1984 Jan;27(1):6–44. [PubMed]
  • Kienast HW, Boshes LD. Clinical trials of carbamazepine in suppressing pain. Headache. 1968 Apr;8(1):1–5. [PubMed]
  • Mathew NT, Ali S. Valproate in the treatment of persistent chronic daily headache. An open label study. Headache. 1991 Feb;31(2):71–74. [PubMed]
  • Naidu MU, Ramesh Kumar T, Anuradha RT, Rao UR. Evaluation of phenytoin in rheumatoid arthritis--an open study. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1991;17(5):271–275. [PubMed]
  • Rasmussen P, Riishede J. Facial pain treated with carbamazepin (Tegretol). Acta Neurol Scand. 1970;46(4):385–408. [PubMed]
  • Schaffler K, Wauschkuhn CH, Gierend M. Analgesic potency of a new anticonvulsant drug versus acetylsalicylic acid via laser somatosensory evoked potentials. Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind (5-way) crossover study. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991 Apr;41(4):427–435. [PubMed]
  • Sharav Y, Benoliel R, Schnarch A, Greenberg L. Idiopathic trigeminal pain associated with gustatory stimuli. Pain. 1991 Feb;44(2):171–174. [PubMed]
  • Shibasaki H, Tabira T, Inoue N, Goto I, Kuroiwa Y. Carbamazepine for painful crises in Fabry's disease. J Neurol Sci. 1973 Jan;18(1):47–51. [PubMed]
  • Westerholm N. Treatment of facial pain with G 32 883 (Tegretol Geigy). Scand J Dent Res. 1970;78(2):144–148. [PubMed]
  • Young RJ, Clarke BF. Pain relief in diabetic neuropathy: the effectiveness of imipramine and related drugs. Diabet Med. 1985 Sep;2(5):363–366. [PubMed]
  • Campbell FG, Graham JG, Zilkha KJ. Clinical trial of carbazepine (tegretol) in trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1966 Jun;29(3):265–267. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Killian JM, Fromm GH. Carbamazepine in the treatment of neuralgia. Use of side effects. Arch Neurol. 1968 Aug;19(2):129–136. [PubMed]
  • Nicol CF. A four year double-blind study of tegretol in facial pain. Headache. 1969 Apr;9(1):54–57. [PubMed]
  • Rull JA, Quibrera R, González-Millán H, Lozano Castañeda O. Symptomatic treatment of peripheral diabetic neuropathy with carbamazepine (Tegretol): double blind crossover trial. Diabetologia. 1969 Aug;5(4):215–218. [PubMed]
  • Rompel H, Bauermeister PW. Aetiology of migraine and prevention with carbamazepine (Tegretol): results of a double-blind, cross-over study. S Afr Med J. 1970 Jan 24;44(4):75–80. [PubMed]
  • Leijon G, Boivie J. Central post-stroke pain--a controlled trial of amitriptyline and carbamazepine. Pain. 1989 Jan;36(1):27–36. [PubMed]
  • Greenbaum DS, Ferguson RK, Kater LA, Kuiper DH, Rosen LW. A controlled therapeutic study of the irritable-bowel syndrome: effect of diphenylhydantoin. N Engl J Med. 1973 Jan 4;288(1):13–16. [PubMed]
  • Chadda VS, Mathur MS. Double blind study of the effects of diphenylhydantoin sodium on diabetic neuropathy. J Assoc Physicians India. 1978 May;26(5):403–406. [PubMed]
  • Saudek CD, Werns S, Reidenberg MM. Phenytoin in the treatment of diabetic symmetrical polyneuropathy. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977 Aug;22(2):196–199. [PubMed]
  • Martin C, Martin A, Rud C, Valli M. Etude comparative du valproate de sodium et du kétoprofène dans le traitement de la douleur postopératoire. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1988;7(5):387–392. [PubMed]
  • Stensrud P, Sjaastad O. Clonazepam (rivotril) in migraine prophylaxis. Headache. 1979 Sep;19(6):333–334. [PubMed]
  • Harkins S, Linford J, Cohen J, Kramer T, Cueva L. Administration of clonazepam in the treatment of TMD and associated myofascial pain: a double-blind pilot study. J Craniomandib Disord. 1991 Summer;5(3):179–186. [PubMed]
  • Keczkes K, Basheer AM. Do corticosteroids prevent post-herpetic neuralgia? Br J Dermatol. 1980 May;102(5):551–555. [PubMed]
  • Vilming ST, Lyberg T, Lataste X. Tizanidine in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Cephalalgia. 1986 Sep;6(3):181–182. [PubMed]
  • Lechin F, van der Dijs B, Lechin ME, Amat J, Lechin AE, Cabrera A, Gómez F, Acosta E, Arocha L, Villa S, et al. Pimozide therapy for trigeminal neuralgia. Arch Neurol. 1989 Sep;46(9):960–963. [PubMed]
  • Richards IM, Fraser SM, Hunter JA, Capell HA. Comparison of phenytoin and gold as second line drugs in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1987 Sep;46(9):667–669. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yajnik S, Singh GP, Singh G, Kumar M. Phenytoin as a coanalgesic in cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1992 May;7(4):209–213. [PubMed]
  • Gerson GR, Jones RB, Luscombe DK. Studies on the concomitant use of carbamazepine and clomipramine for the relief of post-herpetic neuralgia. Postgrad Med J. 1977;53 (Suppl 4):104–109. [PubMed]
  • Colditz GA, Miller JN, Mosteller F. How study design affects outcomes in comparisons of therapy. I: Medical. Stat Med. 1989 Apr;8(4):441–454. [PubMed]
  • Turner JA, Deyo RA, Loeser JD, Von Korff M, Fordyce WE. The importance of placebo effects in pain treatment and research. JAMA. 1994 May 25;271(20):1609–1614. [PubMed]
  • Eddy DM. Clinical decision making: from theory to practice. Three battles to watch in the 1990s. JAMA. 1993 Jul 28;270(4):520–526. [PubMed]

Les articles de The BMJ ont été offerts à titre gracieux par BMJ Publishing Group.