Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of bmjThe BMJ
BMJ. 1995 September 30; 311(7009): 833–836.
PMCID: PMC2550850

Decreasing HIV-1 seroprevalence in young adults in a rural Ugandan cohort.


OBJECTIVE--To assess the trend in HIV-1 seroprevalence in an adult population in Uganda. DESIGN--An observational cohort study with four year follow up. SETTING--A cluster of 15 villages in rural Uganda. SUBJECTS--All residents of the 15 villages--about 10,000 people. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prevalence of HIV-1 infection as assessed by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS--During the five year period the overall standardised seroprevalence of HIV-1 showed little change; 8.2% in 1990, 7.6% in 1994. Among males aged 13-24 years the prevalence decreased from 3.4% to 1.0% (P for trend < 0.001); among females of the same age the corresponding values were 9.9% and 7.3%. The decrease was greatest in males aged 20-24 years and females aged 13-19 years. CONCLUSION--This is the first report of a decline in HIV-1 prevalence among young adults in a general population in sub-Saharan Africa with high overall HIV-1 prevalence. It is too early to conclude that the epidemic in this population is in decline, but the results of this study should be reason for some cautious optimism and encourage the vigorous pursuit of AIDS control measures.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (901K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Sokal DC, Buzingo T, Nitunga N, Kadende P, Standaert B. Geographic and temporal stability of HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women in Bujumbura, Burundi. AIDS. 1993 Nov;7(11):1481–1484. [PubMed]
  • Nzilambi N, De Cock KM, Forthal DN, Francis H, Ryder RW, Malebe I, Getchell J, Laga M, Piot P, McCormick JB. The prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus over a 10-year period in rural Zaire. N Engl J Med. 1988 Feb 4;318(5):276–279. [PubMed]
  • Magazani K, Laleman G, Perriëns JH, Kizonde K, Mukendi K, Mpungu M, Badibanga N, Piot P. Low and stable HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Shaba province, Zaire. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993 Apr;6(4):419–423. [PubMed]
  • Batter V, Matela B, Nsuami M, Manzila T, Kamenga M, Behets F, Ryder RW, Heyward WL, Karon JM, St Louis ME. High HIV-1 incidence in young women masked by stable overall seroprevalence among childbearing women in Kinshasa, Zaïre: estimating incidence from serial seroprevalence data. AIDS. 1994 Jun;8(6):811–817. [PubMed]
  • Willerford DM, Bwayo JJ, Hensel M, Emonyi W, Plummer FA, Ngugi EN, Nagelkerke N, Gallatin WM, Kreiss J. Human immunodeficiency virus infection among high-risk seronegative prostitutes in Nairobi. J Infect Dis. 1993 Jun;167(6):1414–1417. [PubMed]
  • Laga M, Alary M, Nzila N, Manoka AT, Tuliza M, Behets F, Goeman J, St Louis M, Piot P. Condom promotion, sexually transmitted diseases treatment, and declining incidence of HIV-1 infection in female Zairian sex workers. Lancet. 1994 Jul 23;344(8917):246–248. [PubMed]
  • Grosskurth H, Mosha F, Todd J, Mwijarubi E, Klokke A, Senkoro K, Mayaud P, Changalucha J, Nicoll A, ka-Gina G, et al. Impact of improved treatment of sexually transmitted diseases on HIV infection in rural Tanzania: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1995 Aug 26;346(8974):530–536. [PubMed]
  • Wagner HU, Kamali A, Nunn AJ, Kengeya-Kayondo JF, Mulder DW. General and HIV-1-associated morbidity in a rural Ugandan community. AIDS. 1993 Nov;7(11):1461–1467. [PubMed]
  • Mulder DW, Nunn AJ, Wagner HU, Kamali A, Kengeya-Kayondo JF. HIV-1 incidence and HIV-1-associated mortality in a rural Ugandan population cohort. AIDS. 1994 Jan;8(1):87–92. [PubMed]
  • Mulder DW, Nunn AJ, Kamali A, Nakiyingi J, Wagner HU, Kengeya-Kayondo JF. Two-year HIV-1-associated mortality in a Ugandan rural population. Lancet. 1994 Apr 23;343(8904):1021–1023. [PubMed]
  • Nunn AJ, Kengeya-Kayondo JF, Malamba SS, Seeley JA, Mulder DW. Risk factors for HIV-1 infection in adults in a rural Ugandan community: a population study. AIDS. 1994 Jan;8(1):81–86. [PubMed]
  • Malamba SS, Wagner HU, Maude G, Okongo M, Nunn AJ, Kengeya-Kayondo JF, Mulder DW. Risk factors for HIV-1 infection in adults in a rural Ugandan community: a case-control study. AIDS. 1994 Feb;8(2):253–257. [PubMed]
  • Wagner HU, Van Dyck E, Roggen E, Nunn AJ, Kamali A, Schmid DS, Dobbins JG, Mulder DW. Seroprevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in a rural Ugandan population. Int J STD AIDS. 1994 Sep-Oct;5(5):332–337. [PubMed]
  • Nunn AJ, Biryahwaho B, Downing RG, van der Groen G, Ojwiya A, Mulder DW. Algorithms for detecting antibodies to HIV-1: results from a rural Ugandan cohort. AIDS. 1993 Aug;7(8):1057–1061. [PubMed]
  • Nunn AJ, Biryahwaho B, Downing RG, Ojwiya A, Mulder DW. Computer-assisted quality assurance in an HIV serology laboratory. Methods Inf Med. 1994 May;33(2):170–173. [PubMed]
  • Seeley J, Wagner U, Mulemwa J, Kengeya-Kayondo J, Mulder D. The development of a community-based HIV/AIDS counselling service in a rural area in Uganda. AIDS Care. 1991;3(2):207–217. [PubMed]
  • Nunn AJ, Wagner HU, Kamali A, Kengeya-Kayondo JF, Mulder DW. Migration and HIV-1 seroprevalence in a rural Ugandan population. AIDS. 1995 May;9(5):503–506. [PubMed]
  • Heyward WL, Osmanov S, Saba J, Esparza J, Belsey E, Stoneburner R, Kaldor J, Smith PG. Preparation for phase III HIV vaccine efficacy trials: methods for the determination of HIV incidence. AIDS. 1994 Sep;8(9):1285–1291. [PubMed]

Articles from The BMJ are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group