Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of bmjThe BMJ
BMJ. 1995 July 29; 311(7000): 299–302.
PMCID: PMC2550365

Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups.


This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Duke SS, Gordon-Sosby K, Reynolds KD, Gram IT. A study of breast cancer detection practices and beliefs in black women attending public health clinics. Health Educ Res. 1994 Sep;9(3):331–342. [PubMed]
  • Murray SA, Tapson J, Turnbull L, McCallum J, Little A. Listening to local voices: adapting rapid appraisal to assess health and social needs in general practice. BMJ. 1994 Mar 12;308(6930):698–700. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gregory S, McKie L. The smear test: women's views. Nurs Stand. 1991 May 8;5(33):32–36. [PubMed]
  • Brown JB, Lent B, Sas G. Identifying and treating wife abuse. J Fam Pract. 1993 Feb;36(2):185–191. [PubMed]
  • Zimmerman M, Haffey J, Crane E, Szumowski D, Alvarez F, Bhiromrut P, Brache V, Lubis F, Salah M, Shaaban M, et al. Assessing the acceptability of NORPLANT implants in four countries: findings from focus group research. Stud Fam Plann. 1990 Mar-Apr;21(2):92–103. [PubMed]
  • Naish J, Brown J, Denton B. Intercultural consultations: investigation of factors that deter non-English speaking women from attending their general practitioners for cervical screening. BMJ. 1994 Oct 29;309(6962):1126–1128. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Barker GK, Rich S. Influences on adolescent sexuality in Nigeria and Kenya: findings from recent focus-group discussions. Stud Fam Plann. 1992 May-Jun;23(3):199–210. [PubMed]
  • DiMatteo MR, Kahn KL, Berry SH. Narratives of birth and the postpartum: analysis of the focus group responses of new mothers. Birth. 1993 Dec;20(4):204–211. [PubMed]
  • Mays N, Pope C. Rigour and qualitative research. BMJ. 1995 Jul 8;311(6997):109–112. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Britten N. Qualitative interviews in medical research. BMJ. 1995 Jul 22;311(6999):251–253. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The BMJ are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group