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BMJ. 1995 June 24; 310(6995): 1660–1663.
PMCID: PMC2550020

Financial ties as part of informed consent to postmarketing research. Attitudes of American doctors and patients.


Postmarketing research, often called phase IV trials, is intended to familiarise doctors and patients with newly approved drugs. La Puma and colleagues, in Chicago, studied doctors' and patients' attitudes to whether doctors should receive payment for taking part in such research. We asked for commentaries on their findings from four ethical experts, who put the study in a British context, present the views of patients, and examine some methodological assumptions.

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Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ray WA, Griffin MR, Avorn J. Evaluating drugs after their approval for clinical use. N Engl J Med. 1993 Dec 30;329(27):2029–2032. [PubMed]
  • Stephens MD. Marketing aspects of company-sponsored postmarketing surveillance studies. Drug Saf. 1993 Jan;8(1):1–8. [PubMed]
  • La Puma J, Kraut J. "How much do you get paid if I volunteer?" Suggested institutional policy on reward, consent, and research. Hosp Health Serv Adm. 1994 Summer;39(2):193–203. [PubMed]
  • La Puma J. Physician rewards for postmarketing surveillance (seeding studies) in the US. Pharmacoeconomics. 1995 Mar;7(3):187–190. [PubMed]

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