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OBJECTIVE--To identify and assess contribution of environmental risk factors for injury of child pedestrians by motor vehicles. DESIGN--Community based case-control study. Environmental characteristics of sites of child pedestrian injury were compared with the environmental characteristics of selected comparison sites. Each comparison site was the same distance and direction from home of control child as was the injury site from home or relevant case child. Two control sites were selected for each injury site. SETTING--Auckland region of New Zealand. SUBJECTS--Cases were 190 child pedestrians aged < 15 who were killed or hospitalised after collision with a motor vehicle on a public road during two years and two months. Controls were 380 children randomly sampled from population and frequency matched for age and sex. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Traffic volume and speed and level of parking on curbs at injury sites and comparison sites. RESULTS--Risk of injury of child pedestrians was strongly associated with traffic volume: risk of injury at sites with highest traffic volumes was 14 times greater than that at least busy sites (odds ratio 14.30; 95% confidence interval 6.98 to 29.20), and risk increased with increasing traffic volume. High density of curb parking was also associated with increased risk (odds ratio 8.12; 3.32 to 19.90). Risk was increased at sites with mean speeds over 40 km/h (odds ratio 2.68; 1.26 to 5.69), although risk did not increase further with increasing speed. CONCLUSION--Reducing traffic volume in urban areas could significantly reduce rates of child pedestrian injury. Restricting curb parking may also be effective.