The naturally occurring immunodeficiency syndrome of macaque monkeys is an important animal model for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in humans. A new type D retrovirus, distinct from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, has been isolated from affected animals at the New England Regional Primate Research Center. We now report the results of experimental infection of macaques with retrovirus D/New England after 13 months of study. Inoculated macaques developed lymphadenopathy without follicular hyperplasia, profound neutropenia, and a transient decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte blastogenic responsiveness. Despite our varying the strain of virus, the manner in which the virus was grown, the size of the inoculum, and the age of the inoculated animals, infected macaques have not developed opportunistic infections or profound, prolonged loss of T cell function, key features of the macaque immunodeficiency syndrome. Therefore, experimental infection of naive macaques with D/New England has not reproduced the naturally occurring macaque immunodeficiency syndrome.