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OBJECTIVE--To compare the ability of tests measuring two hour plasma glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated haemoglobin concentrations in predicting the specific microvascular complications of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN--Cross sectional and longitudinal analysis of the relation between complications and concomitant results of the three tests. SETTING--Gila River Indian Community, Arizona. SUBJECTS--Pima Indians (cross sectional, n = 960), aged 25 years or above who were not receiving insulin or oral hypoglycaemic treatment at the baseline examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Development of retinopathy and nephropathy. RESULTS--Cross sectionally, frequency distributions of logarithms of the three sets of results were bimodal, with the prevalence of retinopathy and nephropathy being, respectively, 12.0-26.7 and 3.9-4.2 times as high above as below cut off points which minimised overlap (two hour plasma glucose concentration 12.6 mmol/l; fasting plasma glucose concentration 9.3 mmol/l; glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration 7.8%). Longitudinally, each of the three measures of glycaemia significantly predicted the development of retinopathy (P < 0.0001) and nephropathy (P < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that two hour plasma glucose concentration was superior to fasting plasma glucose concentration (P < 0.05) for prevalent cases of retinopathy, but otherwise no variable had a significant advantage for detecting incident or prevalent cases of either complication. CONCLUSIONS--These findings suggest that determination of glycated haemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose concentrations alone may be acceptable alternatives to measuring glucose concentration two hours after challenge with 75 g glucose for the diagnosis of diabetes.