PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of bmjLink to Publisher's site
 
BMJ. 1994 January 29; 308(6924): 302–306.
PMCID: PMC2539252

Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Kozararevic D, McGee D, Vojvodic N, Racic Z, Dawber T, Gordon T, Zukel W. Frequency of alcohol consumption and morbidity and mortality: The Yugoslavia Cardiovascular Disease Study. Lancet. 1980 Mar 22;1(8169):613–616. [PubMed]
  • Blackwelder WC, Yano K, Rhoads GG, Kagan A, Gordon T, Palesch Y. Alcohol and mortality: the Honolulu Heart Study. Am J Med. 1980 Feb;68(2):164–169. [PubMed]
  • Marmot MG, Rose G, Shipley MJ, Thomas BJ. Alcohol and mortality: a U-shaped curve. Lancet. 1981 Mar 14;1(8220 Pt 1):580–583. [PubMed]
  • Cullen K, Stenhouse NS, Wearne KL. Alcohol and mortality in the Busselton study. Int J Epidemiol. 1982 Mar;11(1):67–70. [PubMed]
  • Kono S, Ikeda M, Tokudome S, Nishizumi M, Kuratsune M. Alcohol and mortality: a cohort study of male Japanese physicians. Int J Epidemiol. 1986 Dec;15(4):527–532. [PubMed]
  • Camacho TC, Kaplan GA, Cohen RD. Alcohol consumption and mortality in Alameda County. J Chronic Dis. 1987;40(3):229–236. [PubMed]
  • Gordon T, Doyle JT. Drinking and mortality. The Albany Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Feb;125(2):263–270. [PubMed]
  • Shaper AG, Wannamethee G, Walker M. Alcohol and mortality in British men: explaining the U-shaped curve. Lancet. 1988 Dec 3;2(8623):1267–1273. [PubMed]
  • Ellison RC. Cheers! Epidemiology. 1990 Sep;1(5):337–339. [PubMed]
  • de Labry LO, Glynn RJ, Levenson MR, Hermos JA, LoCastro JS, Vokonas PS. Alcohol consumption and mortality in an American male population: recovering the U-shaped curve--findings from the normative Aging Study. J Stud Alcohol. 1992 Jan;53(1):25–32. [PubMed]
  • Klatsky AL, Armstrong MA, Friedman GD. Alcohol and mortality. Ann Intern Med. 1992 Oct 15;117(8):646–654. [PubMed]
  • Colditz GA, Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Gordis E, Willett WC. Alcohol intake in relation to diet and obesity in women and men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jul;54(1):49–55. [PubMed]
  • Williamson DF, Forman MR, Binkin NJ, Gentry EM, Remington PL, Trowbridge FL. Alcohol and body weight in United States adults. Am J Public Health. 1987 Oct;77(10):1324–1330. [PubMed]
  • Wannamethee G, Shaper AG. Body weight and mortality in middle aged British men: impact of smoking. BMJ. 1989 Dec 16;299(6714):1497–1502. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuller LH, Ockene JK, Meilahn E, Wentworth DN, Svendsen KH, Neaton JD. Cigarette smoking and mortality. MRFIT Research Group. Prev Med. 1991 Sep;20(5):638–654. [PubMed]
  • Midanik L. The validity of self-reported alcohol consumption and alcohol problems: a literature review. Br J Addict. 1982 Dec;77(4):357–382. [PubMed]
  • Shaper AG. Alcohol and mortality: a review of prospective studies. Br J Addict. 1990 Jul;85(7):837–861. [PubMed]
  • Marmot M, Brunner E. Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: the status of the U shaped curve. BMJ. 1991 Sep 7;303(6802):565–568. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jackson R, Scragg R, Beaglehole R. Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease. BMJ. 1991 Jul 27;303(6796):211–216. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kono S, Ikeda M, Tokudome S, Nishizumi M, Kuratsune M. Cigarette smoking, alcohol and cancer mortality: a cohort study of male Japanese physicians. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1987 Dec;78(12):1323–1328. [PubMed]
  • Renaud S, de Lorgeril M. Wine, alcohol, platelets, and the French paradox for coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1992 Jun 20;339(8808):1523–1526. [PubMed]
  • Morgan MY, Sherlock S. Sex-related differences among 100 patients with alcoholic liver disease. Br Med J. 1977 Apr 9;1(6066):939–941. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from BMJ : British Medical Journal are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group