Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jvirolPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJV ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Virol. 1986 June; 58(3): 937–944.
PMCID: PMC253002

Molecular cloning and long terminal repeat sequences of human endogenous retrovirus genes related to types A and B retrovirus genes.


By using a DNA fragment primarily encoding the reverse transcriptase (pol) region of the Syrian hamster intracisternal A particle (IAP; type A retrovirus) gene as a probe, human endogenous retrovirus genes, tentatively termed HERV-K genes, were cloned from a fetal human liver gene library. Typical HERV-K genes were 9.1 or 9.4 kilobases in length, having long terminal repeats (LTRs) of ca. 970 base pairs. Many structural features commonly observed on the retrovirus LTRs, such as the TATAA box, polyadenylation signal, and terminal inverted repeats, were present on each LTR, and a lysine (K) tRNA having a CUU anticodon was identified as a presumed primer tRNA. The HERV-K LTR, however, had little sequence homology to either the IAP LTR or other typical oncovirus LTRs. By filter hybridization, the number of HERV-K genes was estimated to be ca. 50 copies per haploid human genome. The cloned mouse mammary tumor virus (type B) gene was found to hybridize with both the HERV-K and IAP genes to essentially the same extent.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Benton WD, Davis RW. Screening lambdagt recombinant clones by hybridization to single plaques in situ. Science. 1977 Apr 8;196(4286):180–182. [PubMed]
  • Blin N, Stafford DW. A general method for isolation of high molecular weight DNA from eukaryotes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1976 Sep;3(9):2303–2308. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bonner TI, O'Connell C, Cohen M. Cloned endogenous retroviral sequences from human DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Aug;79(15):4709–4713. [PubMed]
  • Breathnach R, Chambon P. Organization and expression of eucaryotic split genes coding for proteins. Annu Rev Biochem. 1981;50:349–383. [PubMed]
  • Buetti E, Diggelmann H. Cloned mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is biologically active in transfected mouse cells and its expression is stimulated by glucocorticoid hormones. Cell. 1981 Feb;23(2):335–345. [PubMed]
  • Callahan R, Chiu IM, Wong JF, Tronick SR, Roe BA, Aaronson SA, Schlom J. A new class of endogenous human retroviral genomes. Science. 1985 Jun 7;228(4704):1208–1211. [PubMed]
  • Callahan R, Drohan W, Tronick S, Schlom J. Detection and cloning of human DNA sequences related to the mouse mammary tumor virus genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Sep;79(18):5503–5507. [PubMed]
  • Callahan R, Kuff EL, Lueders KK, Birkenmeier E. Genetic relationship between the Mus cervicolor M432 retrovirus and the Mus Musculus intracisternal type A particle. J Virol. 1981 Dec;40(3):901–911. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Canaani E, Dreazen O, Klar A, Rechavi G, Ram D, Cohen JB, Givol D. Activation of the c-mos oncogene in a mouse plasmacytoma by insertion of an endogenous intracisternal A-particle genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Dec;80(23):7118–7122. [PubMed]
  • Chen HR, Barker WC. Nucleotide sequences of the retroviral long terminal repeats and their adjacent regions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Feb 24;12(4):1767–1778. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chiu IM, Callahan R, Tronick SR, Schlom J, Aaronson SA. Major pol gene progenitors in the evolution of oncoviruses. Science. 1984 Jan 27;223(4634):364–370. [PubMed]
  • DeLorbe WJ, Luciw PA, Goodman HM, Varmus HE, Bishop JM. Molecular cloning and characterization of avian sarcoma virus circular DNA molecules. J Virol. 1980 Oct;36(1):50–61. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kennedy N, Knedlitschek G, Groner B, Hynes NE, Herrlich P, Michalides R, van Ooyen AJ. Long terminal repeats of endogenous mouse mammary tumour virus contain a long open reading frame which extends into adjacent sequences. Nature. 1982 Feb 18;295(5850):622–624. [PubMed]
  • Khoury G, Gruss P. Enhancer elements. Cell. 1983 Jun;33(2):313–314. [PubMed]
  • Kuff EL, Feenstra A, Lueders K, Smith L, Hawley R, Hozumi N, Shulman M. Intracisternal A-particle genes as movable elements in the mouse genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Apr;80(7):1992–1996. [PubMed]
  • Lawn RM, Fritsch EF, Parker RC, Blake G, Maniatis T. The isolation and characterization of linked delta- and beta-globin genes from a cloned library of human DNA. Cell. 1978 Dec;15(4):1157–1174. [PubMed]
  • Lueders KK, Kuff EL. Sequences homologous to retrovirus-like genes of the mouse are present in multiple copies in the Syrian hamster genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Nov 25;9(22):5917–5930. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mager DL, Henthorn PS. Identification of a retrovirus-like repetitive element in human DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Dec;81(23):7510–7514. [PubMed]
  • Martin MA, Bryan T, Rasheed S, Khan AS. Identification and cloning of endogenous retroviral sequences present in human DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Aug;78(8):4892–4896. [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):499–560. [PubMed]
  • Mount SM. A catalogue of splice junction sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Jan 22;10(2):459–472. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Noda M, Kurihara M, Takano T. Retrovirus-related sequences in human DNA: detection and cloning of sequences which hybridize with the long terminal repeat of baboon endogenous virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 May 11;10(9):2865–2878. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Obata M, Amanuma H, Harada Y, Sagata N, Ikawa Y. env-Related leukemogenic genes (gp55 genes) of two closely related polycythemic strains of Friend spleen focus-forming virus possess different recombination points with an endogenous mink cell focus-forming virus env gene. Virology. 1984 Jul 30;136(2):435–438. [PubMed]
  • O'Connell CD, Cohen M. The long terminal repeat sequences of a novel human endogenous retrovirus. Science. 1984 Dec 7;226(4679):1204–1206. [PubMed]
  • Ono M, Cole MD, White AT, Huang RC. Sequence organization of cloned intracisternal A particle genes. Cell. 1980 Sep;21(2):465–473. [PubMed]
  • Ono M, Kitasato H, Ohishi H, Motobayashi-Nakajima Y. Molecular cloning and long terminal repeat sequences of intracisternal A-particle genes in Mus caroli. J Virol. 1984 May;50(2):352–358. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ono M, Ohishi H. Long terminal repeat sequences of intracisternal A particle genes in the Syrian hamster genome: identification of tRNAPhe as a putative primer tRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Oct 25;11(20):7169–7179. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ono M, Toh H, Miyata T, Awaya T. Nucleotide sequence of the Syrian hamster intracisternal A-particle gene: close evolutionary relationship of type A particle gene to types B and D oncovirus genes. J Virol. 1985 Aug;55(2):387–394. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Repaske R, Steele PE, O'Neill RR, Rabson AB, Martin MA. Nucleotide sequence of a full-length human endogenous retroviral segment. J Virol. 1985 Jun;54(3):764–772. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sagata N, Yasunaga T, Tsuzuku-Kawamura J, Ohishi K, Ogawa Y, Ikawa Y. Complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of bovine leukemia virus: its evolutionary relationship to other retroviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Feb;82(3):677–681. [PubMed]
  • Scheidereit C, Beato M. Contacts between hormone receptor and DNA double helix within a glucocorticoid regulatory element of mouse mammary tumor virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 May;81(10):3029–3033. [PubMed]
  • Schwartz DE, Tizard R, Gilbert W. Nucleotide sequence of Rous sarcoma virus. Cell. 1983 Mar;32(3):853–869. [PubMed]
  • Seiki M, Hattori S, Hirayama Y, Yoshida M. Human adult T-cell leukemia virus: complete nucleotide sequence of the provirus genome integrated in leukemia cell DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jun;80(12):3618–3622. [PubMed]
  • Shinnick TM, Lerner RA, Sutcliffe JG. Nucleotide sequence of Moloney murine leukaemia virus. Nature. 1981 Oct 15;293(5833):543–548. [PubMed]
  • Sprinzl M, Moll J, Meissner F, Hartmann T. Compilation of tRNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985;13 (Suppl):r1–49. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Suzuki A, Kitasato H, Kawakami M, Ono M. Molecular cloning of retrovirus-like genes present in multiple copies in the Syrian hamster genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Oct 11;10(19):5733–5746. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tamura T, Noda M, Takano T. Structure of the baboon endogenous virus genome: nucleotide sequences of the long terminal repeat. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Dec 11;9(23):6615–6626. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Temin HM. Structure, variation and synthesis of retrovirus long terminal repeat. Cell. 1981 Nov;27(1 Pt 2):1–3. [PubMed]
  • Varmus HE. Form and function of retroviral proviruses. Science. 1982 May 21;216(4548):812–820. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Virology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)