PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
 
J Bacteriol. 1968 August; 96(2): 447–456.
PMCID: PMC252317

Mutants of Aerobacter aerogenes Capable of Utilizing Xylitol as a Novel Carbon1

Abstract

Wild-type Aerobacter aerogenes 1033 is unable to utilize xylitol. A succession of mutants was isolated capable of growth on this compound (0.2%) at progressively faster rates. Whereas the ability to utilize xylitol was achieved in the first-stage mutant (X1) by constitutive production of ribitol dehydrogenase (for which xylitol is a substrate but not an inducer), the basis for enhanced utilization of xylitol in the second-stage mutant (X2) was an alteration of ribitol dehydrogenase. This enzyme was purified from the various mutants. The apparent Km for xylitol was 0.12 m with X2 enzyme and 0.29 m with X1 enzyme. The X2 enzyme was also less heat stable and, at 0.05 m substrate concentration, had a higher ratio of activity with xylitol compared to ribitol than did the X1 enzyme. The third mutant (X3), with an even faster growth rate on xylitol, produced a ribitol dehydrogenase indistinguishable physically or kinetically from that of X2. However, X3 produced constitutively an active transport system which accepts xylitol. The usual function of this system is apparently for the transport of d-arabitol since the latter is not only a substrate but also an inducer of the transport system in parental strains of X3. The sequence of mutations described herein illustrates how genes belonging to different metabolic systems can be mobilized to serve a new biochemical pathway.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • ALTERMATT HA, SIMPSON FJ, NEISH AC. The anaerobic dissimilation of D-ribose-1-C14, D-xylose-1-C14, D-xylose-2-C14, and D-xylose-5-C14 by Aerobacter aerogenes. Can J Biochem Physiol. 1955 Jul;33(4):615–621. [PubMed]
  • BENZER S. Induced synthesis of enzymes in bacteria analyzed at the cellular level. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1953 Jul;11(3):383–395. [PubMed]
  • Bridges CB. THE BAR "GENE" A DUPLICATION. Science. 1936 Feb 28;83(2148):210–211. [PubMed]
  • FOSSITT D, MORTLOCK RP, ANDERSON RL, WOOD WA. PATHWAYS OF L-ARABITOL AND XYLITOL METABOLISM IN AEROBACTER AEROGENES. J Biol Chem. 1964 Jul;239:2110–2115. [PubMed]
  • Fox CF, Wilson G. The role of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent kinase system in beta-glucoside catabolism in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1968 Mar;59(3):988–995. [PubMed]
  • FROMM HJ. Ribitol dehydrogenase. I. Purification and properties of the enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1958 Nov;233(5):1049–1052. [PubMed]
  • Fromm HJ, Bietz JA. Ribitol dehydrogenase. IV. Purification and crystallization of the enzyme. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1966 Sep 9;115(3):510–514. [PubMed]
  • FROMM HJ, NELSON DR. Ribitol dehydrogenase. III. Kinetic studies with product inhibition. J Biol Chem. 1962 Jan;237:215–220. [PubMed]
  • Ganesan AK, Rotman B. Transport systems for galactose and galactosides in Escherichia coli. I. Genetic determination and regulation of the methyl-galactoside permease. J Mol Biol. 1966 Mar;16(1):42–50. [PubMed]
  • HAYASHI S, KOCH JP, LIN EC. ACTIVE TRANSPORT OF L-ALPHA-GLYCEROPHOSPHATE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI. J Biol Chem. 1964 Sep;239:3098–3105. [PubMed]
  • Hengstenberg W, Egan JB, Morse ML. Carbohydrate transport in Staphylococcus aureus. V. The accumulation of phosphorylated carbohydrate derivatives, and evidence for a new enzyme-splitting lactose phosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1967 Jul;58(1):274–279. [PubMed]
  • Benedict WF, Rucker N, Faust J, Kouri RE. Malignant transformation of mouse cells by cigarette smoke condensate. Cancer Res. 1975 Mar;35(3):857–860. [PubMed]
  • HULLEY SB, JORGENSEN SB, LIN EC. Ribitol dehydrogenase in Aerobacter aerogenes 1033. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1963 Feb 12;67:219–225. [PubMed]
  • Kennedy EP, Scarborough GA. Mechanism of hydrolysis of O-nitrophenyl-beta-galactoside in Staphylococcus aureus and its significance for theories of sugar transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1967 Jul;58(1):225–228. [PubMed]
  • KUNDIG W, GHOSH S, ROSEMAN S. PHOSPHATE BOUND TO HISTIDINE IN A PROTEIN AS AN INTERMEDIATE IN A NOVEL PHOSPHO-TRANSFERASE SYSTEM. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1964 Oct;52:1067–1074. [PubMed]
  • Leive L, Davis BD. The transport of diaminopimelate and cystine in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1965 Nov;240(11):4362–4369. [PubMed]
  • LERNER SA, WU TT, LIN EC. EVOLUTION OF A CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN BACTERIA. Science. 1964 Dec 4;146(3649):1313–1315. [PubMed]
  • LESTER G, BONNER DM. Genetic control of raffinose utilization in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1957 Apr;73(4):544–552. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LEWIS EB. Pseudoallelism and gene evolution. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1951;16:159–174. [PubMed]
  • LIN EC. An inducible D-arabitol dehydrogenase from Aerobacter aerogenes. J Biol Chem. 1961 Jan;236:31–36. [PubMed]
  • LIN EC, LERNER SA, JORGENSEN SE. A method for isolating constitutive mutants for carbohydrate-catabolizing enzymes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1962 Jul 2;60:422–424. [PubMed]
  • LIN EC, LEVIN AP, MAGASANIK B. The effect of aerobic metabolism on the inducible glycerol dehydrogenase of Aerobacter aerogenes. J Biol Chem. 1960 Jun;235:1824–1829. [PubMed]
  • MAGASANIK B, BROOKE MS, KARIBIAN D. Metabolic pathways of glycerol dissimilation; a comparative study of two strains of Aerobacter aerogenes. J Bacteriol. 1953 Nov;66(5):611–619. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wyndham CR, Meeran MK, Smith T, Engelman RM, Levitsky S, Rosen KM. Epicardial activation in human left anterior fascicular block. Am J Cardiol. 1979 Oct;44(4):638–644. [PubMed]
  • MORTLOCK RP, FOSSITT DD, PETERING DH, WOOD WA. METABOLISM OF PENTOSES AND PENTITOLS BY AEROBACTER AEROGENES. 3. PHYSICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PENITOL DEHYDROGENASES AND PENTULOKINASES. J Bacteriol. 1965 Jan;89:129–135. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mortlock RP, Fossitt DD, Wood WA. A basis for utlization of unnatural pentoses and pentitols by Aerobacter aerogenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1965 Aug;54(2):572–579. [PubMed]
  • MORTLOCK RP, WOOD WA. METABOLISM OF PENTOSES AND PENTITOLS BY AEROBACTER AEROGENES. I. DEMONSTRATION OF PENTOSE ISOMERASE, PENTULOKINASE, AND PENTITOL DEHYDROGENASE ENZYME FAMILIES. J Bacteriol. 1964 Oct;88:838–844. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • MORTLOCK RP, WOOD WA. METABOLISM OF PENTOSES AND PENTITOLS BY AEROBACTER AEROGENES. II. MECHANISM OF ACQUISITION OF KINASE, ISOMERASE, AND DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY. J Bacteriol. 1964 Oct;88:845–849. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • NORDLIE RC, FROMM HJ. Ribitol dehydrogenase. II. Studies on the reaction mechanism. J Biol Chem. 1959 Oct;234:2523–2531. [PubMed]
  • Sharma S, Gupta SB, Pandey DN. A study of cold pressor response in population of Agra region (observations in 500 healthy subjects). J Assoc Physicians India. 1979 May;27(5):439–443. [PubMed]
  • PRESTIDGE LS, PARDEE AB. A SECOND PERMEASE FOR METHYL-THIO-BETA-D-GALACTOSIDE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1965 May 4;100:591–593. [PubMed]
  • RUSH D, KARIBIAN D, KARNOVSKY ML, MAGASANIK B. Pathways of glycerol dissimilation in two strains of Aerobacter aerogenes; enzymatic and tracer studies. J Biol Chem. 1957 Jun;226(2):891–899. [PubMed]
  • Schaefler S, Schenkein I. Beta-glucoside permeases and phospho beta-glucosidases in Aerobacter aerogenes: relationship with cryptic phospho beta-glucosidases in Enterobacteriaceae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1968 Jan;59(1):285–292. [PubMed]
  • Simoni RD, Levinthal M, Kundig FD, Kundig W, Anderson B, Hartman PE, Roseman S. Genetic evidence for the role of a bacterial phosphotransferase system in sugar transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1967 Nov;58(5):1963–1970. [PubMed]
  • Tanaka S, Fraenkel DG, Lin EC. The enzymatic lesion of strain MM-6, a pleiotropic carbohydrate-negative mutant of Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1967 Apr 7;27(1):63–67. [PubMed]
  • Tanaka S, Lerner SA, Lin EC. Replacement of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase by a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked dehydrogenase for the utilization of mannitol. J Bacteriol. 1967 Feb;93(2):642–648. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tanaka S, Lin EC. Two classes of pleiotropic mutants of Aerobacter aerogenes lacking components of a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1967 Apr;57(4):913–919. [PubMed]
  • Winkler HH. A hexose-phosphate transport system in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1966 Mar 28;117(1):231–240. [PubMed]
  • Winkler HH, Wilson TH. The role of energy coupling in the transport of beta-galactosides by Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1966 May 25;241(10):2200–2211. [PubMed]
  • WOOD WA, McDONOUGH MJ, JACOBS LB. Rihitol and D-arabitol utilization by Aerobacter aerogenes. J Biol Chem. 1961 Aug;236:2190–2195. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)