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The Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort (SFIC) is a major new Canadian study that was developed to evaluate potential causes of injury among farmers and their family members. The cohort involves 2,390 farms and 5,492 farm people being followed over a two-year period. The article describes the rationale and methodology for the baseline and longitudinal components of this study. The SFIC is one of the first studies to apply population health theory to the modeling of risks for injury in a defined Canadian population. In doing so, the relative influence of several potential causes of farm injury, including physical, socioeconomic, and cultural factors, will be estimated. Study findings will inform the content and targeting of injury prevention initiatives specific to the farm occupational environment.