1. Peto R, Lopez A D, Boreham J. et alMortality from smoking in developed countries 1950–2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
2. US Department of Health and Human Services Reducing tobacco use: report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2000.
3. Hills S E, Blakely T A, Howden‐Chapman P. Could mainstream anti‐smoking programmes increase inequalities in tobacco use? Journal of Public Health Advance Access 2006. 29279–284.284.
4. Townsend J, Roderick P, Cooper J. Cigarette smoking by socioeconomic group, sex and age: effects of price, income and health publicity. BMJ 1994. 309923–927.927. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 5. Gilpin E A, Pierce J P. Demographic differences in patterns in the incidence of smoking cessation: United States 1950–1990. Ann Epidemiol 2002. 12141–150.150. [PubMed]
6. Office for National Statistics (ONS) Living in Britain: results from the 2003 general household survey. London: The Stationery Office, 2004.
7. Escobedo L G, Peddicard J P. Smoking prevalence in US birth cohorts: the influence of gender and education. Am J Public Health 1996. 86231–236.236. [PubMed]
8. US Department of Health and Human Services Women and smoking: report of the surgeon general 2001. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2001.
9. Pierce J P, Fiore M C, Novotny T E. et al Trends in cigarette smoking in the United States. Educational differences are increasing. JAMA 1989. 26156–60.60. [PubMed] 10. Graham H. Smoking prevalence among women in the European Community, 1950 to 1990. Soc Sci Med 1996. 43243–254.254. [PubMed] 11. Cavelaars A E, Kunst A E, Geurts J J. et al Educational differences in smoking: international comparison. BMJ 2000. 3201102–1107.1107. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
12. Lopez A D, Collishaw N E, Piha T. A descriptive model of the cigarette epidemic in developed countries. Tob Control 1994. 3242–247.247.
13. Nicolaides‐Bouman A, Wald N, Forey B. et alInternational smoking statistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
14. Jha P, Chaloupka F. Tobacco control in developing countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
15. Graham H. When life's a drag: women, smoking and disadvantage. London: HMSO, 1993.
16. Wald N, Nicolaides‐Bouman A. UK tobacco statistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
17. Goodman J. Tobacco in history. London: Routledge, 1993.
18. Hilton M. Smoking in British popular culture 1800‐2000. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.
19. Pierce J P. International comparisons of trends in cigarette smoking prevalence. Am J Public Health 1989. 79152–157.157. [PubMed] 20. Glendinning A, Shucksmith J, Hendry L. Social class and adolescent smoking behaviour. Soc Sci Med 1994. 381449–1460.1460. [PubMed] 21. Jefferis B, Graham H, Manor O. et al Level of cigarette consumption and socioeconomic circumstances in adolescence: how do they affect cigarette smoking? Addiction 2003. 981765–1772.1772. [PubMed] 22. Ebrahim S H, Floyd R L, Merritt R K. et al Trends in pregnancy‐related smoking rates in the United States, 1987–1996. JAMA 2000. 283361–366.366. [PubMed] 23. Jefferis B, Power C, Graham H. et al Effects of childhood socio‐economic circumstances on persistent smoking. Am J Public Health 2004. 94279–285.285. [PubMed]
24. Graham H, Der G. Patterns and predictors of smoking cessation among women. Health Promot Int 1999. 14231–239.239.
25. Lu Y, Tong S, Oldenburg B. Determinants of smoking and cessation during and after pregnancy. Health Promot Int 2001. 16355–365.365. [PubMed] 26. Barbeau E M, Krieger N, Soobader M ‐ J. Working class matters: socioeconomic disadvantage, race/ethnicity, gender and smoking in NHIS 2000. Am J Public Health 2004. 94269–278.278. [PubMed]
27. Erens B, Primatesta P, Prior G, eds. Health survey for England 1999: the health of minority ethnic groups. London: The Stationery Office, 2001.
28. Power C, Graham H, Due P. et al The contribution of childhood and adult socioeconomic position to adult obesity and smoking behaviour: an international comparison. Int J Epidemiol 2005. 34355–444.444. [PubMed]
29. Blanden J, Gregg P, Machin S. Intergenerational mobility in Europe and North America. London: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics, 2005.
30. Graham H, Der G. Influences on women's smoking status: the contribution of socio‐economic status in adolescence and adulthood. Eur J Public Health 1999b. 9137–141.141.
31. Graham H, Hunt K. Socio‐economic influences on women's smoking in adulthood: insights from the West of Scotland twenty‐07 study. Health Bull 1998. 5651–58.58.
32. Graham H, Der G. Patterns and predictors of cigarette consumption among women. Health Educ Res 1999c. 14611–618.618. [PubMed]
33. Bynner J, Parsons S. Getting on with qualifications. In: Bynner J, Ferri E, Shepherd P, eds. Twenty‐something in the 1990s. Aldershot: Aldgate, 1997.
34. Koivusilta L, Rimpela A, Rimpela M. Health related lifestyle in adolescence predicts adult educational level. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998. 52794–801.801. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 35. Blane D, Hart C L, Davey Smith G. et al Association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with socioeconomic position during childhood and during adulthood. BMJ 1996. 3131434–1438.1438. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 36. Brunner E, Shipley M J, Blane D. et al When does cardiovascular risk start? Past and present socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors in adulthood. J Epidemiol Community Health 1999. 53757–764.764. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 37. Singh S, Darroch J E, Frost J J. et al Socioeconomic disadvantage and adolescent women's sexual and reproductive behaviour: the case of five developed countries, Fam Plann Perspect 2001. 33251–258.258. [PubMed]
38. Ekert‐Jaffé O, Joshi H, Lynch K. et al Fertility, timing of births and socio‐economic status in France and Britain. Population‐E 2002. 57475–505.505.
39. Burton L M. Teenage childbearing as an alternative life‐course strategy in multigenerational black families. Human Nature 1990. 1123–143.143. [PubMed]
40. Graham H, McDermott E. Qualitative research and the evidence‐base of policy: insights from studies of teenage mothers in the UK. J Soc Policy 2006. 351.
41. Hobcraft J, Kiernan K. Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion. B J Sociol 2001. 52495–517.517. [PubMed]
42. Dorsett R, Marsh A. The health trap: poverty, smoking and lone parenthood. London: Policy Studies Institute, 1998.
43. Graham H, Francis B, Inskip H. et al Socioeconomic lifecourse influences on women's smoking status in early adulthood. J Epidemiol Community Health 2006. 60228–233.233. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 44. Inskip H M, Godfrey K M, Robinson S M. et al Cohort profile: the Southampton women's survey. Int J Epidemiol 2006. 3542–48.48. [PubMed] 45. Patrick D L, Cheadle A, Thompson D C. et al The validity of self‐reported smoking: a review and meta‐analysis. Am J Public Health 1994. 841086–1093.1093. [PubMed] 46. Vartiainen E, Seppälä T, Lillsunde P. et al Validation of self reported smoking by serum cotinine measurement in a community based study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005. 56167–170.170. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
47. Ritakallio V ‐ M, Bradshaw J. Family poverty in the European Union. In: Bradshaw J, Hatland A, eds. Social policy, employment and family change in comparative perspective. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2006.
48. Victora C G, Vaughan J P, Barros F C. et al Explaining trends in inequities: evidence from Brazilian child health studies. Lancet 2000. 3561093–1098.1098. [PubMed]
49. Ritakallio V ‐ M. Trends in poverty and income inequality in cross‐national comparison. European Journal of Social Security 2002. 4151–177.177.
50. Smeeding T. Globalization, inequality and the rich countries of the G‐20: evidence from the Luxembourg income study (LIS). New York: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, 2002.
51. Unicef Child poverty in rich countries 2005. Florence: Innocenti Research Centre, 2005.
52. Greenberg D, Ashworth A, Cebulla A. et al Do welfare‐to‐work programmes work for long? Fiscal Studies 2004. 2527–53.53.
53. Kaplan G A, Siefert K, Ranjit N. et al The health of poor women under welfare reform. Am J Public Health 2005. 951252–1258.1258. [PubMed]
54. Hills J, Waldfogel J. A ‘Third Way' in welfare reform? Evidence from the UK. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 2004. 23765–788.788.
55. Brewer M, Goodman A, Shaw J. et alPoverty and inequality in Britain: 2005. London: Department for Work and Pensions, 2005.
56. Gregg P, Waldfogel J, Washbrook E. Expenditure patterns post‐welfare reform in the UK: Are low‐income families starting to catch up?. London: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, 2005.
57. Reference withdrawn .
58. Schweinhart L J, Barnes H V, Weikart D P. Significant benefits: the High/Scope Perry preschool study through age 27. Michigan: High/Scope Press, 1993.
59. Hertzman C, Weins M. Child development and long‐term outcomes: a population health perspective and summary of successful interventions. Soc Sci Med 1996. 431083–1095.1095. [PubMed]
60. Demack S, Drew D, Grimsley M. Minding the gap: ethnic, gender and social class differences in attainment at 16, 1988–95. Race Ethnicity and Education 2000. 3117–143.143.
61. DiCenso A, Guyatt G, Willan A. et al Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised control trials. BMJ 2002. 3241426–1435.1435. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
62. McDermott E, Graham H. Resilient young mothering: social inequalities, late modernity and the ‘problem' of ‘teenage' motherhood. Journal of Youth Studies 2005. 859–79.79.
63. Wanless D. Securing good health for the whole population: population health trends. London: HMSO, 2003.
64. Bourdieu P. Distinction. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1986.
65. Reay D. Class work: mothers' involvement in children's schooling. London: University College Press, 1998.
66. Reay D. Education and cultural capital: the implications of changing trends in education policies. Cultural Trends 2004. 1373–86.86.