Spatial control of mRNA translation is a well established mechanism for generating cellular asymmetries and for functional specialization of polarized cells like neurons. A requirement for the translational repressor Nanos (Nos) in the Drosophila larval peripheral nervous system (PNS) implicates translational control in dendrite morphogenesis . Nos was first identified by its requirement in the posterior of the early embryo for abdomen formation . Nos synthesis is targeted to the posterior pole of the oocyte and early embryo through translational repression of unlocalized nos mRNA coupled with translational activation of nos mRNA localized at the posterior pole [3, 4]. Mutations that abolish nos localization prevent abdominal development whereas de-repression of unlocalized nos mRNA suppresses head/thorax development, indicating that spatial regulation of nos is essential for anterior-posterior patterning [3, 5]. The observation that both loss and overexpression of Nos affect dendrite branching complexity in class IV dendritic arborization (da) neurons suggests that nos might also be regulated in these larval sensory neurons . Here we show that localization and translational control of nos mRNA are essential for late stages of da neuron morphogenesis. RNA-protein interactions that regulate nos translation in the oocyte and early embryo also regulate nos in the PNS. Live imaging of nos mRNA shows that the cis-acting signal responsible for posterior localization in the oocyte/embryo mediates localization to the processes of class IV da neurons, but suggests a different transport mechanism. The need to target nos mRNA to the processes of da neurons may reflect a requirement for Nos protein in controlling translation locally within dendrites.