OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between dietary adherence and glycemic control among youth with type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 119 youth aged 9–14 years (mean ± SD 12.1 ± 1.6 years) with diabetes duration ≥1 year (5.4 ± 3.1 years). Dietary adherence was assessed using the Diabetes Self-Management Profile diet domain. Higher score defined greater dietary adherence. Glycemic control was determined by A1C.
RESULTS—Dietary adherence score was inversely correlated with A1C (r = −0.36, P < 0.0001). In a multivariate model (R2 = 0.34, P < 0.0001), dietary adherence (P = 0.004), pump use (P = 0.03), and caregiver education (P = 0.01) were associated with A1C. A1C of youth in the lowest (9.0%) tertile of diet score was higher than A1C of youth in the middle (8.1%, P = 0.004) and upper (8.4%, P = 0.06) tertiles. Dietary adherence uniquely explained 8% of the variance in A1C in the model.
CONCLUSIONS—Greater dietary adherence was associated with lower A1C among youth with type 1 diabetes.