1. UNAIDS/WHO. AIDS Epidemic Update. 2006. pp. 1–96.
2. CDC. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. 2005. pp. 1–46.
3. CDC. Trends in HIV/AIDS diagnoses—33 states, 2001–2004. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2005;54:1149–1153.
4. Hogg RS, Yip B, Chan KJ, et al. Rates of disease progression by baseline CD4 cell count and viral load after initiating triple-drug therapy. J Am Med Assoc. 2001;286:2568–2577.
5. Hammer SM, Saag MS, Schechter M, et al. Treatment for adult HIV-infection: 2006 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. J Am Med Assoc. 2006;296:827–843.
6. Kelly JA, Kalichman SC. Behavioral research in HIV/AIDS primary and secondary prevention: recent advances and future directions. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2002;70:626–639. [PubMed]
7. Jenkins SR, Coons HL. Psychosocial stress and adaptation processes for women coping with HIV/AIDS. In: O’Leary A, Jemmott LS, editors. Women and AIDS: Coping and Care. New York, NY: Plenum; 1996. pp. 33–86.
8. Morrow K, Costello T, Boland R. Understanding the psychosocial needs of HIV-positive women. Psychosomatics. 2001;42:497–503. [PubMed]
9. Bogart LM, Catz SL, Kelly JA, et al. Psychosocial issues in the era of new AIDS treatments from the perspective of persons living with HIV. J Health Psychol. 2000;5:500–516.
10. Heckman TG, Anderson ES, Sikkema KJ, et al. Emotional distress in nonmetropolitan persons living with HIV disease enrolled in a telephone-delivered, coping improvement group intervention. Health Psychol. 2004;23:94–100. [PubMed]
11. Griffin KW, Rabkin JG. Psychological distress in people with HIV/AIDS: prevalence rates and methodological issues. AIDS Behav. 1997;12:9–42.
12. Catz S, Gore-Felton C, McClure JB. Psychological distress among minority and low-income women living with HIV. Behav Med. 2002;28:53–60. [PubMed] 13. Ironson G, O’Cleirigh C, Fletcher M, et al. Psychosocial factors predict CD4 and viral load change in men and women with human immunodeficiency virus in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment. Psychosom Med. 2005;97:1013–1021. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 14. Leserman J, Jackson ED, Petitto JM, et al. Progression to AIDS: the effects of stress, depressive symptoms, and social support. Psychosom Med. 1999;61:397–406. [PubMed] 15. Chesney MA, Folkman S. Psychological impact of HIV disease and implications for intervention. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1994;17:163–182. [PubMed]
16. Bower JE, Kemeny ME, Fawzy FI. Group interventions for individuals with serious medical illness. In: Chesney MA, Antoni MH, editors. Innovative Approaches to Health Psychology: Prevention and Treatment Lessons from AIDS. Washington DC: American Psychological Association; 2002. pp. 197–218.
17. WHO. HIV/AIDS: Psychosocial Support. 2007.
18. Vanable PA, Carey MP. Behavioral medicine interventions in HIV/AIDS: challenges and opportunities for promoting sustained health and adaptation. In: Nikcevic AV, Kuczmierczyk AR, Bruch M, editors. A Clinician’s Guide to Behavioral Medicine: A Case Formulation Approach. New York: Routledge; 2006. pp. 233–253.
19. Ironson G, Antoni MH, Schneiderman N, et al. Coping: interventions for optimal disease management. In: Chesney MA, Antoni MH, editors. Innovative Approaches to Health Psychology: Prevention and Treatment Lessons from AIDS. Washington, DC: APA; 2002. pp. 167–195.
20. Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer; 1984.
21. Folkman S, Moskowitz JT. Positive affect and the other side of coping. Am Psychol. 2000;55:647–654. [PubMed] 22. Folkman S, Moskowitz JT. Coping: pitfalls and promise. Annu Rev Psychol. 2004;55:745–774. [PubMed] 23. Cote JK, Pepler C. A randomized trial of a cognitive coping intervention for acutely ill HIV-positive men. Nurs Res. 2002;51:237–244. [PubMed] 24. Sikkema KJ, Hansen NB, Ghebremichael M, et al. A randomized control trial of a coping group intervention for adults with HIV who are AIDS bereaved: longitudinal effects on grief. Health Psychol. 2006;25:563–570. [PubMed] 25. Coates TJ, McKusick L, Kuno R, Stites DP. Stress reduction training changed number of sexual partners but not immune function in men with HIV. Am J Public Health. 1989;79:885–887. [PubMed] 26. Kelly JA, Murphy DA, Bahr R, et al. Outcome of cognitive-behavioral and support group brief therapies for depressed, HIV-infected persons. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:1679–1686. [PubMed] 27. Carrico AW, Antoni MH, Duran RE, et al. Reductions in depressed mood and denial coping during cognitive behavioral stress management with HIV-positive gay men treated with HAART. Ann Behav Med. 2006;31:155–164. [PubMed] 28. Heckman TG, Kochman A, Sikkema KJ, et al. A pilot coping improvement intervention for late middle-aged and older adults living with HIV/AIDS in the USA. AIDS Care. 2001;13:129–139. [PubMed] 29. Chesney MA, Chambers DB, Taylor JM, Johnson LM, Folkman S. Coping effectiveness training for men living with HIV: results from a randomized clinical trial testing a group-based intervention. Psychosom Med. 2003;65:1038–1046. [PubMed] 30. Chesney MA, Folkman S, Chambers DB. Coping effectiveness training for men living with HIV: preliminary findings. Int J STD AIDS. 1996;7:75–82. [PubMed] 31. Heckman TG, Barcikowski R, Ogles BM, et al. A telephone-delivered coping improvement group intervention for middle-aged and older adults living with HIV/AIDS. Ann Behav Med. 2006;32:27–38. [PubMed] 32. Mulder CL, Emmelkamp PMG, Antoni MH, et al. Cognitive-behavioral and experiential group psychotherapy for HIV-infected homosexual men: a comparative study. Psychosom Med. 1994;56:423–431. [PubMed] 33. Mulder CL, Antoni MH, Emmelkamp PMG, et al. Psychosocial group intervention and rate of decline of immunological parameters in asymptomatic HIV-infected homosexual men. Psychother Psychosom. 1995;63:185–192. [PubMed] 34. McCain NL, Zeller JM, Cella D, Urbanski PA, Novak RM. The influence of stress management training in HIV disease. Nurs Res. 1996;45:246–253. [PubMed] 35. Chan I, Kong P, Leung P, et al. Cognitive–behavioral group program for Chinese heterosexual HIV-infected men in Hong Kong. Patient Educ Couns. 2005;56:78–84. [PubMed] 36. Ironson G, Weiss S, Lydston D, et al. The impact of improved self-efficacy on HIV viral load and distress in culturally diverse women living with AIDS: the SMART/EST Women’s Project. AIDS Care. 2005;17:222–236. [PubMed] 37. Lechner S, Antoni MH, Lydston D, et al. Cognitive–behavioral interventions improve quality of life in women with AIDS. J Psychosom Res. 2003;54:253–261. [PubMed] 38. Molassiotis A, Callaghan P, Twinn SF, et al. A pilot study of the effects of cognitive-behavioral group therapy and peer support/counseling in decreasing psychologic distress and improving quality of life in Chinese patients with symptomatic HIV disease. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2002;16:83–96. [PubMed] 39. Antoni MH, Cruess DG, Cruess S, et al. Cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention effects on anxiety, 24-hr urinary norepinephrine output, and t-cytotoxic/suppressor cells over time among symptomatic HIV-infected gay men. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:31–45. [PubMed]
40. Cruess S, Antoni MH, Hayes A, et al. Changes in mood and depressive symptoms and related change processes during cognitive-behavioral stress management in HIV-infected men. Cogn Ther Res. 2002;26:373–392.
41. Lutgendorf SK, Antoni MH, Ironson G, et al. Changes in cognitive coping skills and social support during cognitive behavioral stress management intervention and distress outcomes in symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive gay men. Psychosom Med. 1998;60:204–214. [PubMed] 42. Inouye J, Flannelly L, Flannelly KJ. The effectiveness of self-management training for individuals with HIV/AIDS. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2001;12:73–84. [PubMed] 43. Hansen NB, Tarakeshwar N, Ghebremichael M, et al. Longitudinal effects of coping on outcome in a randomized controlled trial of a group intervention for HIV-positive adults with AIDS-related bereavement. Death Stud. 2006;30:609–636. [PubMed] 44. Chesney MA, Neilands TB, Chambers DB, Taylor JM, Folkman S. A validity and reliability study of the coping self-efficacy scale. Br J Health Psychol. 2006;14:421–437. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
45. Antoni MH. Psychosocial stressors and behavioral interventions in gay men with HIV infection. Int Rev Psychiatry. 1991;3:383–399.
46. Lee MR, Cohen L, Hadley SW, Goodwin FK. Cognitive–behavioral group therapy with medication for depressed gay men with AIDS or symptomatic HIV infection. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:948–952. [PubMed] 47. Cruess DG, Antoni MH, Schneiderman N, et al. Cognitive–behavioral stress management increases free testosterone and decreases psychological distress in HIV-seropositive men. Health Psychol. 2000;19:12–20. [PubMed] 48. Lutgendorf SK, Antoni MH, Ironson G, et al. Cognitive-behavioral stress management decreases dysphoric mood and herpes simplex virus-type 2 antibody titers in symptomatic HIV-seropositive gay men. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;65:31–43. [PubMed] 49. Sikkema KJ, Hansen NB, Kochman A, Tate DC, Difranceisco W. Outcomes from a randomized controlled trial of a group intervention for HIV positive men and women coping with AIDS-related loss and bereavement. Death Stud. 2004;28:187–209. [PubMed] 50. Fawzy FI, Namir S, Wolcott DL. Structured group intervention model for AIDS patients. Psychiatr Med. 1989;7:35–44. [PubMed] 51. Cruess S, Antoni MH, Cruess DG, et al. Reductions in herpes simplex virus type 2 antibody titers after cognitive behavioral stress management and relationships with neuroendocrine function, relaxation skills, and social support in HIV-positive men. Psychosom Med. 2000;62:828–837. [PubMed] 52. Sikkema KJ, Hansen NB, Meade CS, Kochman A, Lee RS. Improvements in health-related quality of life following a group intervention for coping with AIDS-bereavement among HIV-infected men and women. Qual Life Res. 2005;14:991–1005. [PubMed] 53. Vanable PA, Carey MP, Blair DC, Littlewood RA. Impact of HIV-related stigma on health behaviors and psychological adjustment among HIV-positive men and women. AIDS Behav. 2006;10:473–482. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 54. Lutgendorf SK, Antoni MH, Schneiderman N, Fletcher M. Psychosocial counseling to improve quality of life in HIV infection. Patient Educ Couns. 1994;24:217–235. [PubMed] 55. Segerstrom SC, Miller GE. Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychol Bull. 2004;130:601–630. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 56. Antoni MH, Cruess DG, Klimas N, et al. Stress management and immune system reconstitution in symptomatic HIV-infected gay men over time: effect on transitional naive T cells (CD4+CD45RA+CD29+) Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:143–145. [PubMed]
57. Kalichman SC. The Inside Story on AIDS: Experts Answer Your Questions. Washington, DC: APA; 2003.
58. Unglaub Silverthorn D, Ober WC, Garrison CW, Silverthorn AC, Johnson B. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach. 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: Pearson; 2004.
59. Skinner EA, Edge K, Altman J, Sherwood H. Searching for the structure of coping: a review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping. Psychol Bull. 2003;129:216–269. [PubMed]
60. De Ridder D. What is wrong with coping assessment? A review of conceptual and methodological issues. Psychol Health. 1997;12:417–431.
61. Oakland S, Ostell A. Measuring coping: a review and critique. Human Relat. 1996;49:133–155.
62. Steed LG. A critique of coping scales. Aust Psychol. 1998;33:193–202.
63. APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA; 2000. text revision edition.
64. Kalichman SC, Sikkema KJ, Somlai AM. Assessing persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection using the Beck Depression Inventory: disease processes and other potential confounds. J Pers Assess. 1995;64:86–100. [PubMed] 65. Chambless DL, Hollon SD. Defining empirically supported therapies. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998;66:7–18. [PubMed] 66. Antoni MH. Stress management and psychoneuroimmunology in HIV infection. CNS Spectr. 2003;8:40–51. [PubMed]
67. CDC. HIV/AIDS Among Women: Fact Sheet. 2006.
68. CDC. Drug-associated HIV Transmission Continues in the United States. 2002.
69. Bing EG, Burnam MA, Longshore D, et al. Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:721–728. [PubMed] 70. Atkins DC, Bedics JD, McGlinchey JB, Beauchaine TP. Assessing clinical significance: does it matter which method we use? J Consult Clin Psychol. 2005;73:982–989. [PubMed] 71. Jacobson NS, Roberts LJ, Berns SB, McGlinchey JB. Methods for defining and determining clinical significance of treatment effects: description, application, alternatives. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67:300–307. [PubMed] 72. Kazdin AE. The meanings and measurement of clinical significance. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67:332–339. [PubMed] 73. Kendall PC, Marrs-Garcia A, Nath SR, Sheldrick RC. Normative comparisons for the evaluation of clinical significance. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67:285–299. [PubMed]