1. Southgate EM, Davey MR, Power JB, Merchant R. Factors affecting the genetic engineering of plants by microprojectile bombardment. Biotechnol Adv. 1995;13:631–57. [PubMed] 2. Sticklen M. Plant genetic engineering to improve biomass characteristics for biofuels. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2005;17:315–9. [PubMed] 3. Conrad U. Polymers from plants to develop biodegradable plastics. Trends Plant Sci. 2005;10:511–2. [PubMed]
4. Ma JKC, Drake PMW, Christou P. The production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in plants. Nature. 2003;4:794–805.
5. ISAAA Briefs No. 37. Ithaca, NY: ISAAA; 2007. Executive summary of Global Status of Commercialised Biotech/GM crops: 2007.
6. Brandt P. Overview of the current status of genetically modified plants in Europe as compared to the USA. J Plant Physiol. 2003;160:735–40. [PubMed] 7. Gay PB, Gillespie SH. Antibiotic resistance markers in genetically modified plants; a risk to human health. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:637–46. [PubMed] 8. Bennett PM, Livesey CT, Nathwani D, Reeves DS, Saunders JR, Wise R. An assessment of the risks associated with the use of antibiotic resistance genes in genetically modified plants: report of the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:418–31. [PubMed]
9. Goldstein DA, Tinland B, Gilbertson LA, et al. Human safety and genetically modified plants: a review of antibiotic resistance markers and future transformation selection technologies. J App Microbiol. 2005;99:7–23.
10. Hare PD, Chua NH. Excision of selectable marker genes from GM plants. Nat Biotech. 2002;20:575–80.
11. Wu HX, Sparks CA, Jones HD. Characterisation of T-DNA loci and vector backbone sequences in GM wheat produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Mol Breed. 2006;18:195–208.
12. Fu XD, Duc LT, Fontana S, et al. Linear transgene constructs lacking vector backbone sequences generate low-copy-number GM plants with simple integration patterns. Transgenic Res. 2000;9:11–9. [PubMed]
13. Latham JR, Wilson AK, Steinbrecher RA. The mutational consequences of plant transformation. J Biomed Biotech. 2006:1–7. Article ID 25376.
14. Pinstrup-Anderson P, Pandra-Lorch R, Rosegrant MW. World food prospects: critical issues for the early twenty-first century. 1999 Food policy report. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute; 1999.
15. Food and Agriculture Organisation. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Rome: FAO; 2001.
16. Smith LC, El Obeid AE, Jensen HH. The geography and causes of food insecurity in developing countries. Agriculture Economics. 2000;22:199–215.
17. World Bank. World Development report 2000/2001. Attacking poverty. Washington DC: World Bank; 2000.
18. Christou P, Twyman RM. The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity. Nut Research Rev. 2004;17:23–42.
19. Byrnes BH, Bumb BL. Population growth, food production and nutrient requirements. J Crop Prod. 1998;1:1–27.
20. Byerlee D, Helsey P, Pingali PL. Realising yield gains for food staples in developing countries in the early 21st century: prospects and challenges. In: Chang BM, Colombo M, Soronolo M, editors. Food Needs of the Developing World in the 21st Century. Vatican City: Political Academy of Sciences; 2000. pp. 207–50.
21. Rosegrant MW, Paisner MS, Mejer S, Witcover J. 2020 Global Food Outlook Trends, Alternatives and Choices. A 2020 Vision for Food Agriculture and the Environment Initiative. Washington DC: IFPRI; 2001.
23. Ye XD, Al-Babili S, Kloti A, et al. Engineering the provitamin A (β-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science. 2000;287:303–5. [PubMed] 24. Paine JA, Shipton CA, Chaggar S, et al. Improving the nutritional content of Golden Rice through increased provitamin A content. Nat Biotechnol. 2005;23:482–7. [PubMed] 25. Potrykus I. Golden Rice and beyond. Plant Physiol. 2001;125:1157–61. [PubMed]
26. Anderson PK, Cunningham AA, Patel NG, Morales FJ, Epstein PR, Daszak P. Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen, pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. Trends Eco Evol. 2004;19:535–44.
27. Gurr SJ, Rushton PJ. Engineering plants with increased disease resistance: what are we going to express? Trends Biotech. 2005;23:275–82.
29. Peschen D, Li HP, Fischer R, Kreuzaler F, Liao YC. Fusion protein comprising a Fusarium- specific antibody linked to antifungal peptides protect plants against a fungal pathogen. Nat Biotech. 2004;22:732–8.
30. Tai TH, Dahlbeck D, Clark ET, et al. Expression of Bs2 pepper gene confers resistance to bacterial spot disease in tomatoes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96:14153–8. [PubMed]
31. Vinocur B, Altman A. Recent advances in engineering plant tolerance to abiotic stress: achievements and limitations. Curr Op Biotech. 2005;16:123–32.
32. Ashraf M. Breeding for salinity tolerance in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci. 1994;13:17–42.
33. Shou H, Bordallo P, Fan FB, et al. Expression of an active tobacco mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase enhances freezing tolerance in GM maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101:3298–303. [PubMed]
34. Guidance document of the genetically modified organisms for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants and derived food and feed. EFSA J. 2004;99:1–94.
35. McKeon TA. Genetically modified crops for industrial products and processes and their effects on human health. Trends Food Sci Tech. 2003;14:229–41.
36. Ewen SWB, Pusztai A. Effects of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus Nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. Lancet. 1999;354:1353–4. [PubMed] 37. Burke DM. GM Food and Crops: what went wrong in the UK? EMBO Reports. 2004;5:432–6. [PubMed]
38. FAO/WHO. Evaluation of Allergenicity of Genetically Modified Foods, Report of a joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Allergenicity of Foods derived from Biotechnology. Geneva: FAO/WHO; 2001.
39. Doerfler W, Schubbert R, Fremde DNA im Sciugersystem. Deutsches Arzteblatt. 1997;94:51–2.
40. Malarkey T. Human Health concerns with GM crops. Mut Res. 2003;544:217–22. [PubMed]
41. WHO/FAO. Strategies for assessing the safety of foods produced by biotechnology. Report of the Joint WHO/FAO Consultation. Geneva: FAO/WHO; 1991.
42. FDA Statement of policy, foods derived from new plant varieties. Fed Reg. 1992;57
43. OECD. Food Safety Evaluation. Paris: OECD Documents; 1996.
44. Prescott VE, Campbell PM, Moore A, et al. Transgenic expression of bean α-amylase inhibitor in peas results in altered structure and immunogenicity. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:9023–30. [PubMed] 45. Nordlee JA, Taylor SL, Townsend JA, Thomas LA, Bush RK. Identification of a brazil-nut allergen in GM soybeans. NEJM. 1996;334:688–92. [PubMed]
46. Herman E. Soybean allergenicity and suppression of the immunodominant allergen. Crop Sci. 2005;45:462–7.
47. Sijmons PC, Dekker BM, Schranmeijer B, Verwoerd TC, van den Elzen PJ, Hoekema A. Production of correctly processed human serum albumin in GM plants. Biotechnology. 1990;8:217–21. [PubMed] 48. Twyman RM, Schillberg S, Fischer R. Transgenic plants in the biopharmaceutical market. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2005;10:185–218. [PubMed]
49. Kapusta J, Modelska A, Figlerowicz M, et al. A plant-derived edible vaccine against hepatitis B virus. FASED J. 1999;13:1796–9.
50. Tacket CO, Mason HS, Losonsky G, Clements JD, Levine MM, Arntzen CJ. Immunogenicity in humans of a recombinant bacterial antigen delivered in GM potato. Nature Med. 1998;4:607–9. [PubMed] 51. Tacket CO, Mason HS, Losonsky G, Estes MK, Levine MM, Arntzen CJ. Human responses to a novel Norwalk virus vaccine delivered in GM potatoes. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:302–5. [PubMed] 53. Hiatt A, Cafferkey R, Bowdish K. Production of antibodies in GM plants. Nature. 1998;342:76–8. [PubMed] 54. During K, Hippe S, Kreuzaler F, Schell J. Synthesis and self assembly of a functional monoclonal antibody in GM Nicotiana tabacum. Plant Mol Biol. 1990;15:281–93. [PubMed] 55. Ma JK-C, Hiatt A, Hein M, et al. Generation and assembly of secretory antibodies in plants. Science. 1995;268:716–9. [PubMed] 56. Francisco JA, Gawlak SL, Miller M, et al. Expression and characterisation of bryodin 1 and a bryodin-based single-chain immunotoxin from tobacco cell culture. Bioconjug Chem. 1997;8:708–13. [PubMed] 57. Mayfield SP, Franklin SE, Lerner RA. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003;100:438–42. [PubMed] 58. EMBO Reports. Molecular farming for new drugs and vaccines. EMBO Reports. 2005;6:593–9. [PubMed]
59. Fox JL. Puzzling industry response to Prodigene fiasco. Nat Biotech. 2003;21:3–4.
60. Quist D, Chapela JH. Transgenic DNA introgressed into traditional maize landraces in Oaxaca, Mexico. Nature. 2001;414:541–3. [PubMed] 61. Kaplinsky N, Braun D, Lisch D, Hay A, Hake S, Freeling M. Biodiversity (communications arising): maize transgene results in Mexico are artefacts. 2002. p. 601. [PubMed] 62. Metz M, Fulterer J. Biodiversity (communications arising): suspect evidence of GM contamination. Nature. 2002;416:600–1. [PubMed] 63. Ortiz-Garcia S, Ezcurra E, Schoel B, Acevedo F, Soberon J, Snow AA. Absence of detectable transgenes in local landacres of maize in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003–2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005;102:12338–43. [PubMed] 64. Reichman JR, Watrud LS, Lee EH, et al. Establishment of GM herbicide-resistance creeping bentgrass (Agrostis Stolonifera L.) in nonagronomic habitats. Mol Ecol. 2006;15:4243–55. [PubMed] 65. Losey JE, Rayor LS, Carter ME. Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature. 1999;399:214. [PubMed] 66. Sears MK, Hellmich RL, Stanley-Horn DE, et al. Impact of Bt corn pollen on monarch butterfly populations: a risk assessment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;98:11937–42. [PubMed] 67. Pleasants JM, Hellmich RL, Dively GP, et al. Corn pollen deposition on milkweeds in and near cornfields. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;98:11919–24. [PubMed]
68. Stanley-Horn DE. Assessing the impact of Cry1Ab expressing corn pollen on monarch larvae in field studies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;119:31–36.
70. Sasaki Y, Hayakawa T, Inoue C, Miyazaki A, Silver S, Kusano T. Generation of mercury hyper-accumulating plants through GM expression of the bacterial mercury membrane transport protein MerC. Transgenic Res. 2006;15:615–25. [PubMed]
71. Banuelos G, Leduc DL, Pilon-Smits EAH, Terry N. Transgenic Indian mustard overexpressing selenocysteine lyase or seloncystiene methyltransferase exhibit enhanced potential for selenium phytoremediation under field conditions. Environ Sci Tech. 2007;41:599–605.
72. Mascia PN, Flovell RB. Safe and acceptable strategies for producing foreign materials in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2004;7:189–95. [PubMed] 73. Daniell H. GM Crops: public perception and scientific solutions. Trends Plant Sci. 1999;4:467–9. [PubMed] 75. Zhang HX, Blumwald E. Transgenic salt-tolerant tomato plants accumulate salt in foliage but not in fruit. Nat Biotechnol. 2001;19:765–8. [PubMed] 76. Taverne D. The new fundamentalism. Nat Biotechnol. 2005;23:415–6. [PubMed]
77. Von Emden HF, Gray A, editors. GMOs – Ecological Dimensions. Wellsbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biologists;
78. Bradford KJ, Deynze AV, Gutterson N, Parrott W, Strauss SH. Regulating GM crops sensibly: lessons from plant breeding biotechnology and genomics. Nat Biotechnol. 2005;23:439–44. [PubMed] 79. Kenward KD, Altshuler M, Davies PL. Accumulation of type 1 fish antifreeze protein in GM tobacco is cold specific. Plant Mol Biol. 1993;23:377–85. [PubMed]
80. Consumer Watch. GM Food and Farming: What are Consumer's latest views? Watford, UK: IGD; 2003.
81. Poortinga W, Pidgeon NF. Public perceptions of Genetically Modified Food and Crops, and the GM nation? Norfolk, UK: Centre for Environmental Risk, Norwich; 2004. (Understanding risk, working paper 04–01.)
82. Gorden G. GM Crops opposition may have been ‘over-estimated’ Scotsman. 2004 Feb 19;
83. Better dead than GM feed? Economist. 2002 Mar 13;31