In this study, we have examined the gene expression profiles of a number of cutaneous tumors with the intention of highlighting the differences between metastatic tumors and non-metastatic tissues. We have profiled normal skin, melanocytes, BCC, SCC, and early stage melanomas to establish a gene expression pattern associated with the non- metastatic state. It is well known that BCC and SCC have little if any metastatic potential, and thus adding such specimens substantially contributed to the overall validity of our "non-metastatic" gene signature. Likewise, similar findings are noted for MIS lesions and very early primary melanomas (< 0.75 mm in Breslow's depth). Opposed to this is the metastatic state, which exhibits vastly different expression levels in thousands of genes and is observed in thick PCM and MM tumors. The principal finding of this study is that normal tissues and non-metastatic cutaneous tumors can be distinguished from metastatic melanoma tumors on the basis of the expression level of these genes. We have reported 1,300 transcripts that differ in expression between thin PCM and MM, many of which differ more than 100-fold. This robust signature suggests that gene expression may be useful for identifying metastatic potential in PCM tumors.
A number of previous studies have attempted to use gene expression signatures to identify the genes associated with the establishment or identification of metastatic tumors. Using cell lines it has been shown that normal melanocytes differ greatly from tumor derived cells [8
]. Benign nevi have been shown to differ from thick or metastatic melanoma tumors [10
]. Also, several recent studies have shown that MM or thicker melanoma tumors contain one or more distinctive signatures that may indicate the more aggressive phenotype with respect to clinical outcome [9
]. Although each of these studies was unique in the samples they used and the gene expression signatures they report, we believe there is a very high degree of similarity between all of the "signatures".
The recent report by Jaeger et al
. coincides very well with the current study [14
]. Although they compared tumors to normal skin they utilized U133A arrays from Affymetrix, which contain a subset of the same probes found on the U133 Plus 2.0 arrays used in the present study. We compared the common probe sets of both arrays, finding a 65% overlap between the two gene lists. This is an exceedingly high level of concordance between different microarray studies utilizing tumor samples; probably reflecting the fact that the two studies used nearly identical microarray platforms.
There remains considerable debate in the literature as to why comparative microarray studies do not completely coincide with each other. We believe that the primary reason for such discrepancies is that strict p-values and other restrictive criteria are often utilized to generate gene lists. If we relax our criteria only slightly to generate a larger list than reported in supplementary table , we find a stunning 90% concordance with the study of Jaeger et al. The remaining differences between the two studies appear to be a few differences that exist between normal skin and metastatic melanoma rather than between primary melanoma and metastatic melanoma and a few genes that exist within a small subset of melanoma tumors and therefore most likely reflect subtle differences in the spectrum of tumors analyzed by the two studies (based on our data).
In all of the recent gene expression studies an attempt has been made to compare normal, benign, or non-metastatic cells or tissues to clinically aggressive tumors. In most of these studies, it is not clear where the shift in gene expression occurs. However, in the current study, we used a larger number and variety of non-metastatic tissues to illustrate the fact that the metastatic signature is robustly different from all the non-metastatic conditions that one might use for comparison. We have also included a documented gradation of tumor thicknesses to better resolve thin primary melanomas from thick primary melanomas which has helped to illustrate that the metastatic signature emerges as primary melanoma tumors thicken.
We have approximated what might occur in an individual tumor by grouping the melanoma samples into subgroups from thin through thick and proceeding on to metastatic tumors (Figure ). This illustration follows the analysis of Smith et al
] who compared normal skin, benign nevi, melanoma in situ (MIS) and MM samples to show a distinct transition point of gene expression associated with the vertical growth phase of melanoma tumors. However, that study did not specifically describe the Breslow's tumor thickness of their primary melanoma samples leaving open the question of what was metastatic and what was a non-metastatic tumor sample. We believe that our data resolves this issue, showing that MIS and thin melanomas do not have much, if any, of the gene expression measures associated with metastasis. The metastatic signature emerges when primary melanomas begin to thicken. This data suggests that thickening tumors is the best arena for further evaluating the cellular changes leading to metastasis.
Thin melanomas are the most difficult samples to acquire in a research setting where RNA integrity can be preserved and thus our analysis is limited by the few samples of thin melanoma we were able to collect during this study. Thus, it is probable that we have not identified the optimal progression in the transition from non-metastatic gene expression to metastatic gene expression. However, by looking more closely at the various thicknesses of tumors, we observed that the gene expression changes do not occur synchronously. Certain changes occur early and others appear later in the progression from thin to thick tumors (Table ). Each change brings the expression pattern of primary melanoma tumors closer to the expression pattern observed in metastatic tumors. This suggests that the phenotype of tumors becomes more metastatic-like as the tumor gets thicker and argues against the outgrowth of a cell with the full metastatic signature.
Our data also indicates that many phenotypic changes may be occurring during this thickening period. Our gene ontology analysis suggests a fundamental shift in the functional properties of the cells comprising a tumor. There is a reduced expression or loss of genes involved in the processes of keratinocyte differentiation, epidermal development, cell adhesion and cell-to-cell signaling. This loss of cell-stromal interactions may reflect the gain of migratory potential for the metastatic cell type. This is opposed by functional gains associated with the increased expression of genes involved in melanocyte differentiation, nervous system development, protein transport, carbohydrate metabolism and DNA repair. The unidirectional shift in these classes of genes, the number of genes involved, and the extent to which each gene changed (fold-changes of 30 or more) all suggest a developmental change, rather than a regulation of cellular metabolism. Further supporting such a fundamental change is the observation by Alonso et al
. that an epithelial-mesenchymal transition occurs as the metastatic signature emerges [18
The thickening of PCM is also when the increased expression of putative proto- oncogenes and decreased expression of putative TSGs occurs (Table ). Although most of these oncogenes and TSGs have not been demonstrated to function in melanoma progression, they represent key factors to consider when understanding the emergence of the metastatic phenotype. Growth differentiation factor-15
) shows a striking correlation between expression level and metastatic phenotype in several tumor types [25
]. Osteopontin (SPP-1) is a secreted phosphoglycoprotein that has been implicated in tumor progression and invasive behavior in many tumor types [27
]. SPP-1 expression has been strongly correlated with invasive melanoma but found highly expressed in only 72% of invasive primary melanomas [21
]. Our data shows that SPP-1
gene expression increases when thin primary melanomas thicken (Table ) and that SPP-1 is expressed in daughter melanoma cell lines and secreted as a soluble protein (Figure ). Other identified genes, such as Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator
), hepatocyte growth factor receptor
), and various homeobox genes have yet to be investigated in melanoma although some have been previously identified in metastatic melanoma [11
The TSGs listed in table have been implicated in the evolution of the metastatic state via down-regulation and inactivation. PITX-1
has been identified as a TSG in several tumor types, including lung cancer and Barrett's esophagus leading to esophageal adenocarcinoma [28
]. Loss of PITX-1
expression is seen in thin primary melanoma samples, with a 14-fold decrease in gene expression in thin primary compared to I.M. samples. Many of the other TSGs listed in table have been down-regulated by epigenetic silencing in other tumor histologies [31
]. Recently, Muthusamy et al
. described the epigenetic silencing of novel tumor suppressors in melanoma samples, identifying 17 genes not previously known to be hypermethylated. [39
]. We have found 2 genes that are in common with this list. We are actively examining the identified TSGs for evidence of epigenetic silencing via hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands.
We also found several known melanoma tumor antigens (MAGE, TRAG3, PRAME
) highly expressed in thicker tumors. This is consistent with studies that have shown an increase in tumor antigen expression with advanced disease [8
]. Some of these antigens were seen in nearly all tumor samples while others were only seen in a subset of the melanoma tumors. Nonetheless, these surface antigens provide a mechanism for identifying the metastatic cell arising in early melanoma tumors.
Based upon their distinct gene expression profiles, the four classes of tumors could be correctly classified greater than 90% of the time. The major difficulty in classification was for thick primary melanoma tumors that appeared to have the gene expression signature of MM tumors. The difficulty in classifying these tumors suggested that they might represent a transitional state between primary tumors and truly metastatic tumors. If we accept this assumption, then 81 of our 82 tumor samples were correctly classified based upon their gene expression signature. With the ability to correctly and accurately classify tumors into distinct classes, we can begin to investigate the mechanisms responsible for malignant tumor formation, invasion, progression and metastasis.