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A chemolithotrophic ammonium-oxidizing bacterium that was able to reduce 15NO2− to 15N2 (m/z 30) while oxidizing ammonium under conditions of oxygen stress was isolated from stream sediments. Energy was derived from ammonium oxidation, as evidence by growth, with CO2 serving as the sole C source. The organism was a gram-negative, motile, short rod that failed to grow either aerobically or anaerobically in heterotroph media. The organism was identified as a Nitrosomonas sp.