Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of jvirolPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJV ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Virol. 1992 January; 66(1): 573–579.
PMCID: PMC238319

Infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.


We have investigated the susceptibility of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vitro. Cord blood monocytes were maintained in vitro for 10 to 15 days and then infected with HIV-1. Syncytia were observed 14 days after infection by light microscopy. Viral proteins were detected by immunofluorescence assay. Electron microscopic examination demonstrated typical lentivirus particles within cytoplasmic vacuoles. The supernatants from the HIV-1-infected cultures also contained significant reverse transcriptase activity and p24 antigen. Like adult monocyte/macrophages, cord-derived monocyte/macrophages expressed the CD4 receptor molecule. Pretreatment with blocking antibody prior to infection with HIV-1 Bal significantly reduced or blocked infection of cord monocyte/macrophages. When cord and adult monocyte/macrophages were infected with HIV-1 Bal or Ada-M and directly compared, higher reverse transcriptase activities and p24 antigen expression were obtained with cord monocyte/macrophages. However, no significant difference was found between adult and cord monocyte/macrophages infected with HIV-1 IIIB. These observations suggest that cord monocyte-derived macrophages may be important in the pathogenesis of pediatric AIDS and that the increased susceptibility of cord monocyte/macrophages to HIV-1 infection in vitro may be relevant to the enhanced susceptibility of neonates to HIV-1 diseases in vivo.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.4M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Auger I, Thomas P, De Gruttola V, Morse D, Moore D, Williams R, Truman B, Lawrence CE. Incubation periods for paediatric AIDS patients. Nature. 1988 Dec 8;336(6199):575–577. [PubMed]
  • Belman AL, Diamond G, Dickson D, Horoupian D, Llena J, Lantos G, Rubinstein A. Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Neurologic syndromes. Am J Dis Child. 1988 Jan;142(1):29–35. [PubMed]
  • Collman R, Godfrey B, Cutilli J, Rhodes A, Hassan NF, Sweet R, Douglas SD, Friedman H, Nathanson N, Gonzalez-Scarano F. Macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 utilize the CD4 receptor. J Virol. 1990 Sep;64(9):4468–4476. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Collman R, Hassan NF, Walker R, Godfrey B, Cutilli J, Hastings JC, Friedman H, Douglas SD, Nathanson N. Infection of monocyte-derived macrophages with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Monocyte-tropic and lymphocyte-tropic strains of HIV-1 show distinctive patterns of replication in a panel of cell types. J Exp Med. 1989 Oct 1;170(4):1149–1163. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Crowe S, Mills J, McGrath MS. Quantitative immunocytofluorographic analysis of CD4 surface antigen expression and HIV infection of human peripheral blood monocyte/macrophages. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1987 Summer;3(2):135–145. [PubMed]
  • Epstein LG, Sharer LR, Oleske JM, Connor EM, Goudsmit J, Bagdon L, Robert-Guroff M, Koenigsberger MR. Neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Pediatrics. 1986 Oct;78(4):678–687. [PubMed]
  • Fauci AS. The human immunodeficiency virus: infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenesis. Science. 1988 Feb 5;239(4840):617–622. [PubMed]
  • Fogelman AM, Shechter I, Seager J, Hokom M, Child JS, Edwards PA. Malondialdehyde alteration of low density lipoproteins leads to cholesteryl ester accumulation in human monocyte-macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Apr;77(4):2214–2218. [PubMed]
  • Gartner S, Markovits P, Markovitz DM, Kaplan MH, Gallo RC, Popovic M. The role of mononuclear phagocytes in HTLV-III/LAV infection. Science. 1986 Jul 11;233(4760):215–219. [PubMed]
  • Gendelman HE, Orenstein JM, Baca LM, Weiser B, Burger H, Kalter DC, Meltzer MS. The macrophage in the persistence and pathogenesis of HIV infection. AIDS. 1989 Aug;3(8):475–495. [PubMed]
  • Gendelman HE, Orenstein JM, Martin MA, Ferrua C, Mitra R, Phipps T, Wahl LA, Lane HC, Fauci AS, Burke DS, et al. Efficient isolation and propagation of human immunodeficiency virus on recombinant colony-stimulating factor 1-treated monocytes. J Exp Med. 1988 Apr 1;167(4):1428–1441. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldstein JL, Ho YK, Basu SK, Brown MS. Binding site on macrophages that mediates uptake and degradation of acetylated low density lipoprotein, producing massive cholesterol deposition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Jan;76(1):333–337. [PubMed]
  • Harbison MA, Gillis JM, Pinkston P, Byrn RA, Rose RM, Hammer SM. Effects of recombinant soluble CD4 (rCD4) on HIV-1 infection of monocyte/macrophages. J Infect Dis. 1990 Jan;161(1):1–6. [PubMed]
  • Hassan NF, Campbell DE, Douglas SD. Purification of human monocytes on gelatin-coated surfaces. J Immunol Methods. 1986 Dec 24;95(2):273–276. [PubMed]
  • Hassan NF, Cutilli JR, Douglas SD. Isolation of highly purified human blood monocytes for in vitro HIV-1 infection studies of monocyte/macrophages. J Immunol Methods. 1990 Jul 3;130(2):283–285. [PubMed]
  • Ho DD, Rota TR, Hirsch MS. Infection of monocyte/macrophages by human T lymphotropic virus type III. J Clin Invest. 1986 May;77(5):1712–1715. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Homsy J, Meyer M, Tateno M, Clarkson S, Levy JA. The Fc and not CD4 receptor mediates antibody enhancement of HIV infection in human cells. Science. 1989 Jun 16;244(4910):1357–1360. [PubMed]
  • Johnson JP, Nair P, Hines SE, Seiden SW, Alger L, Revie DR, O'Neil KM, Hebel R. Natural history and serologic diagnosis of infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. Am J Dis Child. 1989 Oct;143(10):1147–1153. [PubMed]
  • Jordan CA, Watkins BA, Kufta C, Dubois-Dalcq M. Infection of brain microglial cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is CD4 dependent. J Virol. 1991 Feb;65(2):736–742. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jouault T, Chapuis F, Olivier R, Parravicini C, Bahraoui E, Gluckman JC. HIV infection of monocytic cells: rôle of antibody-mediated virus binding to Fc-gamma receptors. AIDS. 1989 Mar;3(3):125–133. [PubMed]
  • Kalter DC, Nakamura M, Turpin JA, Baca LM, Hoover DL, Dieffenbach C, Ralph P, Gendelman HE, Meltzer MS. Enhanced HIV replication in macrophage colony-stimulating factor-treated monocytes. J Immunol. 1991 Jan 1;146(1):298–306. [PubMed]
  • Kazazi F, Mathijs JM, Foley P, Cunningham AL. Variations in CD4 expression by human monocytes and macrophages and their relationships to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Gen Virol. 1989 Oct;70(Pt 10):2661–2672. [PubMed]
  • Kelley VE, Fiers W, Strom TB. Cloned human interferon-gamma, but not interferon-beta or -alpha, induces expression of HLA-DR determinants by fetal monocytes and myeloid leukemic cell lines. J Immunol. 1984 Jan;132(1):240–245. [PubMed]
  • Lampert R, Milberg J, O'Donnell R, Kristal A, Thomas P. Life table analysis of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 May-Jun;5(3):374–375. [PubMed]
  • McDougal JS, Nicholson JK, Cross GD, Cort SP, Kennedy MS, Mawle AC. Binding of the human retrovirus HTLV-III/LAV/ARV/HIV to the CD4 (T4) molecule: conformation dependence, epitope mapping, antibody inhibition, and potential for idiotypic mimicry. J Immunol. 1986 Nov 1;137(9):2937–2944. [PubMed]
  • Oleske J, Minnefor A, Cooper R, Jr, Thomas K, dela Cruz A, Ahdieh H, Guerrero I, Joshi VV, Desposito F. Immune deficiency syndrome in children. JAMA. 1983 May 6;249(17):2345–2349. [PubMed]
  • Popovic M, Gartner S. Isolation of HIV-1 from monocytes but not T lymphocytes. Lancet. 1987 Oct 17;2(8564):916–916. [PubMed]
  • Popovic M, Sarngadharan MG, Read E, Gallo RC. Detection, isolation, and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS. Science. 1984 May 4;224(4648):497–500. [PubMed]
  • Potts BJ, Maury W, Martin MA. Replication of HIV-1 in primary monocyte cultures. Virology. 1990 Apr;175(2):465–476. [PubMed]
  • Robinson WE, Jr, Montefiori DC, Mitchell WM. Antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Lancet. 1988 Apr 9;1(8589):790–794. [PubMed]
  • Rogers MF, Thomas PA, Starcher ET, Noa MC, Bush TJ, Jaffe HW. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in children: report of the Centers for Disease Control National Surveillance, 1982 to 1985. Pediatrics. 1987 Jun;79(6):1008–1014. [PubMed]
  • Rubinstein A, Sicklick M, Gupta A, Bernstein L, Klein N, Rubinstein E, Spigland I, Fruchter L, Litman N, Lee H, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency with reversed T4/T8 ratios in infants born to promiscuous and drug-addicted mothers. JAMA. 1983 May 6;249(17):2350–2356. [PubMed]
  • Sattentau QJ, Dalgleish AG, Weiss RA, Beverley PC. Epitopes of the CD4 antigen and HIV infection. Science. 1986 Nov 28;234(4780):1120–1123. [PubMed]
  • Scott GB, Buck BE, Leterman JG, Bloom FL, Parks WP. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in infants. N Engl J Med. 1984 Jan 12;310(2):76–81. [PubMed]
  • Takeda A, Tuazon CU, Ennis FA. Antibody-enhanced infection by HIV-1 via Fc receptor-mediated entry. Science. 1988 Oct 28;242(4878):580–583. [PubMed]
  • Valentin A, Matsuda S, Asjo B. Characterization of the in vitro maturation of monocytes and the susceptibility to HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1990 Aug;6(8):977–978. [PubMed]
  • Willey RL, Smith DH, Lasky LA, Theodore TS, Earl PL, Moss B, Capon DJ, Martin MA. In vitro mutagenesis identifies a region within the envelope gene of the human immunodeficiency virus that is critical for infectivity. J Virol. 1988 Jan;62(1):139–147. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wood GS, Warner NL, Warnke RA. Anti-Leu-3/T4 antibodies react with cells of monocyte/macrophage and Langerhans lineage. J Immunol. 1983 Jul;131(1):212–216. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Virology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)