This analysis included 759 Hispanic participants who were between the ages of 59 and 94 years. Sociodemographic, sociocultural, functioning, and health characteristics for the entire sample are shown in . The majority of the participants were self-identified as Mexican Americans (57%). Note the following differences between groups: Nearly all the Cuban Americans were interviewed in Spanish; half of all Puerto Ricans in the study were interviewed in Spanish; two thirds of the Mexican Americans were interviewed in Spanish; but the majority of Hispanic others were actually interviewed in English. In contrast to the individuals in the other groups, the majority of whom were born outside of the United States, approximately two thirds (60%) of the Mexican Americans were born in the United States.
We explored the internal consistency reliability of the CES-D scale score in the different Hispanic populations by calculating Kuder–Richardson formula 20 (K-R 20) coefficients. The KR20 is analogous to Cronbach’s alpha, but it is used for binary variables. We compared these estimates across ethnicity groups by using variance ratio tests (Berk, 1982
). For all groups, the CES-D scale demonstrated adequate
internal consistency reliability: the K-R 20 coefficients were 0.78 for Mexican Americans, 0.87 for Puerto Ricans, 0.89 for Cuban Americans, 0.85 for other Hispanic groups, and 0.78 among Hispanics not specified. Compared to Mexican Americans, there was no evidence that the internal consistency reliability was significantly different from the other groups.
shows the crude and adjusted estimates for mean CES-D scores and prevalence of CIDI-SF major depression. In the crude estimates, relative to Puerto Ricans, the following three groups had a significantly lower level of depression: Mexican Americans (p < .01), other Hispanics (p < .05), and Hispanics not specified (p < .05). The Cohen’s effect size difference for CES-D symptom count between Puerto Ricans and each of the groups specified herein was a medium effect size (in respective order, 0.60 pooled standard deviation or SD units, 0.50 pooled SD, and 0.60 pooled SD). After adjustment, the difference between Puerto Ricans and each group specified herein was reduced by 18%, 9%, and 21%, respectively, but still recorded a medium effect size difference (Mexican Americans, 0.50 pooled SD, p < .01; other Hispanics, 0.40 pooled SD, p < .05; and Hispanics not specified, 0.50 pooled SD, p < .05). For the prevalence of CIDI-SF major depression, the prevalence among Mexican Americans was 4.1% (p < .001), among Cuban Americans was 9.7% (p < .05), and among Hispanics not specified was 1.9% (p < .001). These were all significantly different from the prevalence among Puerto Ricans, which was 16.9%. The prevalence of major depression increased for all the groups after adjustment, with differences remaining significant (p < .001) between Puerto Ricans and both Mexican Americans and Hispanics not specified. Not only did Cuban Americans show an increase in the difference in prevalence for major depression when compared with Puerto Ricans, but also the level of significance increased (p < .001).
Crude and Adjusted Estimates of Mean CES-D Symptom Count and Prevalence of CIDI-SF Major Depression, Health and Retirement Study (1996) and Assets and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old (1995) Study Participants (N = 759)