PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of brjcancerBJC HomepageBJC Advance online publicationBJC Current IssueSubmitting an article to BJCWeb feeds
 
Br J Cancer. 2001 February; 84(3): 388–391.
PMCID: PMC2363751

Sibling risks in cancer: clues to recessive or X-linked genes?

Abstract

A systematic analysis of cancer risks to offspring and to siblings of cancer cases was carried out based on the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database. For all 13 cancer sites examined, risks to both offspring and siblings of cases of cancer at the same site were significantly elevated. The relative risk to siblings was approximately 2 fold more than the offspring risk for cancers of the prostate, testis, kidney and bladder, suggesting that recessive or X-linked susceptibility genes may be important for these cancers. Risks to siblings of cases where a parent was also affected were increased >20 fold over population rates for colorectal, ovarian, prostate and renal cancer, and for leukaemia, consistent with the effects of rare high-risk susceptibility alleles. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Keywords: familial cancer, liability, heredity, cancer modelling, genetic epidemiology

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (50K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ahlbom A, Lichtenstein P, Malmström H, Feychting M, Hemminki K, Pedersen NL. Cancer in twins: genetic and nongenetic familial risk factors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 Feb 19;89(4):287–293. [PubMed]
  • Antoniou AC, Gayther SA, Stratton JF, Ponder BA, Easton DF. Risk models for familial ovarian and breast cancer. Genet Epidemiol. 2000 Feb;18(2):173–190. [PubMed]
  • Carstensen B, Soll-Johanning H, Villadsen E, Søndergaard JO, Lynge E. Familial aggregation of colorectal cancer in the general population. Int J Cancer. 1996 Nov 15;68(4):428–435. [PubMed]
  • Claus EB, Schildkraut J, Iversen ES, Jr, Berry D, Parmigiani G. Effect of BRCA1 and BRCA2 on the association between breast cancer risk and family history. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998 Dec 2;90(23):1824–1829. [PubMed]
  • Easton DF, Matthews FE, Ford D, Swerdlow AJ, Peto J. Cancer mortality in relatives of women with ovarian cancer: the OPCS Study. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Int J Cancer. 1996 Jan 26;65(3):284–294. [PubMed]
  • Fearon ER. Human cancer syndromes: clues to the origin and nature of cancer. Science. 1997 Nov 7;278(5340):1043–1050. [PubMed]
  • Goldgar DE, Easton DF, Cannon-Albright LA, Skolnick MH. Systematic population-based assessment of cancer risk in first-degree relatives of cancer probands. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 Nov 2;86(21):1600–1608. [PubMed]
  • Grönberg H, Smith J, Emanuelsson M, Jonsson BA, Bergh A, Carpten J, Isaacs W, Xu J, Meyers D, Trent J, et al. In Swedish families with hereditary prostate cancer, linkage to the HPC1 locus on chromosome 1q24-25 is restricted to families with early-onset prostate cancer. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Jul;65(1):134–140. [PubMed]
  • Hemminki K, Vaittinen P. National database of familial cancer in Sweden. Genet Epidemiol. 1998;15(3):225–236. [PubMed]
  • Hemminki K, Vaittinen P, Kyyrönen P. Age-specific familial risks in common cancers of the offspring. Int J Cancer. 1998 Oct 5;78(2):172–175. [PubMed]
  • Hemminki K, Dong C. Lifestyle and cancer: protection from a cancer-free spouse. Int J Cancer. 2000 Jul 15;87(2):308–309. [PubMed]
  • Monroe KR, Yu MC, Kolonel LN, Coetzee GA, Wilkens LR, Ross RK, Henderson BE. Evidence of an X-linked or recessive genetic component to prostate cancer risk. Nat Med. 1995 Aug;1(8):827–829. [PubMed]
  • Narod S. Genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Jan 29;1423(1):F1–13. [PubMed]
  • Peto J, Easton DF, Matthews FE, Ford D, Swerdlow AJ. Cancer mortality in relatives of women with breast cancer: the OPCS Study. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Int J Cancer. 1996 Jan 26;65(3):275–283. [PubMed]
  • Peto J, Collins N, Barfoot R, Seal S, Warren W, Rahman N, Easton DF, Evans C, Deacon J, Stratton MR. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in patients with early-onset breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Jun 2;91(11):943–949. [PubMed]
  • Pharoah PD, Day NE, Duffy S, Easton DF, Ponder BA. Family history and the risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 1997 May 29;71(5):800–809. [PubMed]
  • Rapley EA, Crockford GP, Teare D, Biggs P, Seal S, Barfoot R, Edwards S, Hamoudi R, Heimdal K, Fossâ SD, et al. Localization to Xq27 of a susceptibility gene for testicular germ-cell tumours. Nat Genet. 2000 Feb;24(2):197–200. [PubMed]
  • Stratton JF, Pharoah P, Smith SK, Easton D, Ponder BA. A systematic review and meta-analysis of family history and risk of ovarian cancer. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998 May;105(5):493–499. [PubMed]
  • Szabo CI, King MC. Population genetics of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 May;60(5):1013–1020. [PubMed]

Articles from British Journal of Cancer are provided here courtesy of Cancer Research UK