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Br J Cancer. Feb 2001; 84(3): 388–391.
PMCID: PMC2363751
Sibling risks in cancer: clues to recessive or X-linked genes?
K Hemminki,1 P Vaittinen,1 C Dong,1 and D Easton2
1Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institute, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
2CRC Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Worts Causeway, Cambridge, CB1 8RN, UK
Received June 7, 2000; Revised October 16, 2000; Accepted October 16, 2000.
Abstract
A systematic analysis of cancer risks to offspring and to siblings of cancer cases was carried out based on the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database. For all 13 cancer sites examined, risks to both offspring and siblings of cases of cancer at the same site were significantly elevated. The relative risk to siblings was approximately 2 fold more than the offspring risk for cancers of the prostate, testis, kidney and bladder, suggesting that recessive or X-linked susceptibility genes may be important for these cancers. Risks to siblings of cases where a parent was also affected were increased >20 fold over population rates for colorectal, ovarian, prostate and renal cancer, and for leukaemia, consistent with the effects of rare high-risk susceptibility alleles. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
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