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Br J Cancer. Jan 2001; 84(2): 283–289.
PMCID: PMC2363695
Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) by indirubin derivatives in human tumour cells
D Marko,1 S Schätzle,1 A Friedel,1 A Genzlinger,2 H Zankl,2 L Meijer,3 and G Eisenbrand1
1Department of Chemistry, Division of Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, 2Department of Biology, Human Biology and Human Genetics, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Str. 52, Kaiserslautern, 67663, Germany
3C.N.R.S., Cell Cycle Group, Station Biologique, B.P. 74, Roscoff cedex, Bretagne, 29682, France
Received April 3, 2000; Revised September 8, 2000; Accepted September 20, 2000.
The bisindole indirubin has been described, more than 30 years ago, as being clinically active in the treatment of human chronic myelocytic leukaemia. However, the underlying mechanism of action has remained unclear. We have reported previously that indirubin and its analogues are potent and selective inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). In this study, we investigated the influence of indirubin and derivatives on CDK1/cyclin B kinase in human tumour cells at concentrations known to induce growth inhibition. Cells of the mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7, synchronized by serum deprivation, after serum repletion stay arrested in the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle in the presence of 2 μM indirubin-3′-monoxime. At higher drug concentrations (≥ 5 μM) an increase of the cell population in the G2/M phase is additionally observed. Cells synchronized in G2/M phase by nocodazole remain arrested in the G2/M phase after release, in the presence of indirubin-3′-monoxime (≥5 μM). After 24 h treatment with 10 μM indirubin-3′-monoxime a sub-G2 peak appears, indicative for the onset of apoptotic cell death. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with growth inhibitory concentrations of indirubin-3′-monoxime induces dose-dependent inhibition of the CDK1 activity in the cell. After 24 h treatment, a strong decrease of the CDK1 protein level along with a reduction of cyclin B in complex with CDK1 is observed. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that inhibition of CDK activity in human tumour cells is a major mechanism by which indirubin derivatives exert their potent antitumour efficacy. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign
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